Organic Gardening: Challenges and Opportunities Carl E. Motsenbocker School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences LSU AgCenter firstname.lastname@example.org Sustainable agriculture refers to farm practices that : provide a more profitable farm,
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Carl E. Motsenbocker
School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences
(Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, 2007).
The USDA three categories of organic products:
Made with 100% organic ingredients
Made with at least 95% organic ingredients, with strict restrictions on the remaining 5% including no GMOs
Made With Organic Ingredients
Made with a minimum of 70% organic ingredients with strict restrictions on the remaining 30% including no GMOs
Products with less than 70 percent organic ingredients may list specific organically produced ingredients on the side panel of the package, but may not make any organic claims on the front of the package.
Year Sale ($ )
1980 178 million
1989 631 million
1990 1.0 billion
1992 1.2 billion
1994 2.3 billion
1996 3.5 billion
1998 5.5 billion
2001 9.3 billion
2005 20.0 billion
(compounded growth rates for the past ten years > 20 % per year)
Residues, manures and wastes
Fertilizer and rain
healthy plants produce healthy animals and humans”
JI and Robert Rodale “started” the organic movement in the US > 60 years years ago.
The idea of adding organic matter and minerals through natural products to improve the health and nutrition of food crops.
Five amendments need to be supplied as raw materials. Especially on POOR soils (Coleman):
Average last spring freeze
Coco fiber (see Coco peat), beneficial mycorrhizae fungi, ms. worm castings, bat guano, bone meal, soybean meal, soft rock phosphate, greensand, fish meal, blood meal, langbenite (K-mag) and kelp meal.
OMRI Listed." OMRI — the Organic Materials Review Institute
Pest & disease restce
Days to maturity
Ease of harvest
Time of harvest
Frost restce & hardiness
Ease of cleaning
Ease of preparation
MarketabilityWhat makes a successful organic garden?
Variety selection -cultivars (cultivated varieties)
• Double-Dug, Raised Beds
• Intensive Planting
• Companion Planting
• Carbon Farming
• Calorie Farming
• The Use of Open-Pollinated Seeds
• A Whole Gardening Method
John Jeavons, 1995, How to Grow More Vegetables/ www.growbiointensive.org
Tomato and marigolds
Others (mycoplasmas, viroids, spiroplasms)
www.attra.org Appropriate Technology Transfer to Rural Areas (USDA funded site)
www.rodaleinstitute.org Rodale Institute
www.rafiusa.org Rural Advancement Foundation International USA
www.ofrf.org Organic Farming Research Foundation
www.omri.org Organic Materials Review Institute
www.whitehawk.com/dirtdoctor Howard Garrett's Basic Organic Program
www.soilfoodweb.com/ The Soil Foodweb
ecoweb.dk/ifoam International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements