Oligarchs in Latin America • What is an oligarch? Oligarchies? • How are they formed? • What types of political forces do they represent? • Why do they fear the masses? • What do they do to protect themselves against the masses?
Argentina and the Generation of 1880 • Oligarchic system created by politicians from the Argentine Interior 1874-1916 • Tried to wrest economic power from the province of Buenos Aires by federalizing city of BA in 1880, and nationalizing the port and its customs house
Unicato • Why they supported one party rule • How did they deal with immigrants, workers? • Why they supported universal public education for men and women • Why they supported the economic modernization of the countryside and the beautification of Buenos Aires • What happened to them?
Porfirio Díaz and the Científicos • Presided over the modernization of Mexico through a one party system • Linked to intellectuals called científicos and to the rurales or rural police • Brought railroad construction and foreign investment of Mexico
Positivism and the Cientificos • The Cientificos and Economic Policy • Positivism and the Dilemma of Mexican Liberalism • World View of Cientificos • Caudillos, Indians, and Backwardness • Foreign Models and Fears: Legacy of the Mexican War
Positivism and the Cientificos • Policies of the Cientificos • Indians and Modernization • Reliance on Foreign Capital and Foreign Trade vs. Need to Control Dependency • Split personality of Cientificos • Porfirio Diaz: “Poor Mexico, so far from God and so Close to the United States”
Porfirio Diaz in 1910
The Persistence of Latin American Oligarchs • Phenomenon lasted into the 20th century • According to Peter Smith, politicians have severely restricted the electorate in Latin American countries 47% of the time before 1930. Thereafter in many countries a series of authoritarian governments did the same thing.