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Nutritional Diseases. 4-H Veterinary Science Extension Veterinary Medicine Texas AgriLife Extension Service College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences Texas A&M System http://aevm.tamu.edu. Objectives . Discuss the importance of water in the animal diet

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nutritional diseases

Nutritional Diseases

4-H Veterinary Science

Extension Veterinary Medicine

Texas AgriLife Extension Service

College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences

Texas A&M System

http://aevm.tamu.edu

objectives
Objectives
  • Discuss the importance of water in the animal diet
  • Discuss the need for energy in the animal diet
  • Discuss the importance of minerals in animal diets
  • Discuss the importance of vitamins in animal diets
  • Describe the signs of protein deficiency
  • Describe the signs of a phosphorus deficiency
  • Describe the signs and causes of grass tetany
  • Describe the signs and causes of milk fever
  • Describe the signs of vitamin and mineral deficiencies
  • Give examples of nutritional diseases in cats, cattle and horses
  • Discuss conditions that create increased nutritional needs
slide3
Nutrition is important
    • Health maintenance
    • Energy
  • Affects all animals
  • If improper nutrition
    • Recognize changes
      • Appearance
      • Behavior
    • Identify cause
    • Correct problem
slide4
Diet
    • The usual food and drink of a person or animal
  • Nutrient
    • A source of nourishment
slide5
Diets are comprised of nutrients
    • Proteins
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats
    • Minerals
    • Vitamins
    • Water
  • Depends on
    • Animal
    • Activity
add additional nutrients
Add Additional Nutrients
  • Cold weather
  • Parasite infestations
  • Reduced appetite
    • Chronic disease
  • Pregnancy or milk production
undernourished animals
Undernourished animals
  • Improperly fed
  • Symptoms
    • Changes in body weight
      • Low
      • Thin appearance
    • Hair coat
      • Dull and rough
    • Activity
      • Weak and depressed
requirements for proper nutrition
Requirements for Proper Nutrition
  • Water
  • Energy
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
water
Water
  • Essential
  • 60% makeup
  • Continually lost
  • Constantly replenish
  • Maintain homeostasis
    • 60% balance
slide10
Water requirements
    • Digestive process
      • Ruminants
    • Physiological development
      • Milk production
    • Diet
      • Supplements
slide11
Problems
    • Dehydration
      • Excessive loss of water from the body or from an organ or body part, as from illness or fluid deprivation
      • Due to
        • Diarrhea
        • Kidney diseases
        • Sick
          • Refusal to drink
slide12
Solution
    • Re-hydration
      • IV fluids
      • Stomach tube
energy
Energy
  • Function
    • Growth
    • Body movement
  • Found in
    • Proteins
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats
slide14
How supplies
    • Metabolic breakdown of diet
    • Fat deposits
  • Normal conditions
    • Roughage (producers)
      • Good quality
slide15
Working animals
    • Supplement
      • Protein
  • Careful with overfeeding protein to pregnant animals
minerals
Minerals
  • Definition
    • Any of the inorganic elements, as calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, or sodium, that are essential to the functioning of the human body and are obtained from foods
slide17
Some minerals
    • Calcium
      • Bone structure
      • Cell performance
        • Muscle contraction
        • Blood clotting
    • Phosphorus
      • Organ structure
      • Nutrient transport
      • Energy utilization
slide18
Iron
    • Necessary for the transport of oxygen (via hemoglobin in red blood cells) and for oxidation by cells (via cytochrome)
    • Anemia
  • Copper
  • Magnesium
    • Muscle cramps
    • Constipation
slide19
Potassium
    • Critical for the normal functioning of the muscles, heart, and nerves
      • Controlling activity
        • Smooth muscle (digestive tract)
        • Skeletal muscle
        • Cardiac muscle
        • Transmission of electrical signals throughout the nervous system
slide21
Normal conditions
    • Good pastures
      • Fertilized
  • Problems
    • Drought
    • Non-fertilized fields
  • Correct
    • Supplements
slide22
Dogs and cats
    • Commercial foods balanced
    • All meat diets
      • Need supplementation
vitamins
Vitamins
  • Function
    • Proper cell function
  • Source
    • Body produces
    • Supplements
slide24
Found in roughage
    • Vitamins A,D and E
  • Produced by
    • Ruminants
      • Vitamins
        • B
        • C
        • K
    • Skin – sunlight exposure
      • Vitamin D

Vitamin D deficiency (rickets)

examples of nutritional diseases and disorders
Examples of Nutritional Diseases and Disorders
  • Protein Deficiency
    • Without enough protein
    • Problem
      • Underweight
      • Weak
    • Symptoms
      • Swelling under
        • Throat
        • Brisket area
        • Underline
    • Fluid balance is upset
slide26
Phosphorus Deficiency
    • Good pastures and feeds ok
    • Problems with unfertilized pastures
    • Symptoms
      • Unthrifty
      • Lame
      • Stiff
      • Pica
        • Compulsive eating of non-nutritive substances
slide27
Grass tetany
    • Aka Grass Staggers
    • Magnesium deficiency
    • Problem
      • Grazing lush grass
      • Low Mg, High K, N
        • Interferes with absorption in digestive tract
slide28
Symptoms
    • Excitability
    • Inability to stand
    • Stiff muscle convulsions
    • Death
  • Treatment
    • Mg injection
  • Prevention
    • Have supplements available
slide29
Milk Fever
    • Low blood calcium
    • Hypocalcemia
    • Symptoms
      • Loss of appetite
      • Depression
      • Muscle tremors
      • Grinding teeth
      • Muscular paralysis
        • Lies on sternum
        • Head to side
      • Possible death
slide30
Treatment
    • Calcium injection
  • Also occurs in dogs and horses
    • Trembling
    • Panting
    • Nervousness
    • Convulsions
    • Death
slide31
Vitamin A deficiency
    • Source
      • Commercial feeds
      • Green pasture
      • Good hay
    • Problems
      • Skin and eye problems
      • Abortions
      • Retained placentas
      • Weak newborns
      • Night blindness
    • Correction
      • Supplement
      • Good quality hay
slide32
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
    • High phosphorus, low calcium diets
    • Affects
      • Livestock on high-bran diets
        • No supplements or hay
      • Pets
        • All meat diets
          • No supplements
slide33
Symptoms
    • Horses
      • Bones thicken
        • Head
        • Face
    • Pets
      • Bones
        • Weak
        • Flexible
slide34
Taurine deficiency
    • Cats
    • Amino acid
    • Symptoms
      • Eye problems
        • Blindness
      • Weakening heart muscle
    • Problem
      • Cats eating dog food
slide35
Bloat in Cattle
    • Rumen produces gases
      • Cattle eructate (belch)
    • Types
      • Frothy bloat
      • Free-gas bloat
    • Problem
      • Can’t belch
slide36
Treatment
    • Passing tube
    • Abdominal wall puncture
    • Drugs
slide37
Colic in Horses
    • Intestinal problem
    • Occurs when
      • Change in diet
      • Intestinal disease
      • Lodged material
slide38
Symptoms
    • Obvious pain
    • Rolling
    • Kicking
    • Profuse sweating
  • Treatment
    • Laxatives
    • Walking
    • Surgery
slide39
Founder (laminitis)
    • Problem
      • Improper feeding
      • Overfeeding of grain
    • Bacterial toxins
      • Affects hoof wall
    • Causes
      • Hoof
        • Inflammation
        • Pain
        • Lameness
      • Depression
      • Loss of appetite
      • Slow, painful walk
slide40
Treatment
    • Horses
      • Laxatives
    • Cattle
      • Flush feed from rumen
        • Large stomach tube
        • Surgery