slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 385 Views
  • Uploaded on

Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion An Introduction to Taxonomic Names of Organisms Richard L. Pyle Bishop Museum, Honolulu Taxonomic Databases Working Group Fremantle, 19 October 2008 “A necessary evil.” - Randall Kosaki Taxonomy is...

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Names, Concepts, Codes

and Lots of Confusion

An Introduction to

Taxonomic Names of Organisms

Richard L. Pyle

Bishop Museum, Honolulu

Taxonomic Databases Working GroupFremantle, 19 October 2008

slide2

“A necessary evil.”

- Randall Kosaki

Taxonomy is...

“The perpetual re-classification of mis-named species.”

slide4

Image: Biodiversity Heritage Library

Carolus Linnaeus

1707-1778

Image: Wikimedia Commons

slide5

Codes of Nomenclature

International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)

  • Governs scientific names of plants and fungi
  • First established in 1867, and formalized in 1930
  • Fixes 1 May 1753 as official start (Linnaeus’ Species Plantarum)
  • Governed by the International Botanical Congress (IBC)
  • Managed by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy
  • Updated every 6 years at the IBC (currently 2006 Vienna Code; next edition 2011)

International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

  • Governs scientific names of animals
  • First established in 1895
  • Fixes 1 January 1758 as official start (Linnaeus’ Systema Naturae)
  • Governed by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN)
  • Managed by a Secretariat
  • Updated as needed (currently 4th Edition; 5th Edition in early drafting stage)

International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB)

  • Governs scientific names of bacteria
  • Initial bacteriological code in 1947 discarded, and ICNB established in 1980
  • Fixes 1 January 1980 as official start
  • Governed by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP)

International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP)

International Society for Phylogenetic Nomenclature (ISPN)

slide6

Pomacanthus imperator

Holacanthus bishopi

Why all the Fuss?

Better Communication!

Multiple Names for the Same Organism (Synonyms)

slide7

Centropyge flavissima

Centropyge flavissima

Why all the Fuss?

Better Communication!

Multiple Names for the Same Organism (Synonyms)

Pomacanthus imperator

= Holacanthus bishopi

Same Name for Multiple Organisms (Homonyms)

slide8

Centropyge flavissima

Why all the Fuss?

Better Communication!

Multiple Names for the Same Organism (Synonyms)

Pomacanthus imperator

= Holacanthus bishopi

Same Name for Multiple Organisms (Homonyms)

Centropyge heraldi

= Centropyge flavissima

slide9

What Is a Name?

What’s In a Name?

“Name” as Text String: 13

Anthias

Pseudanthias

Anthias (Pseudanthias)

Anthias ventralis

Anthias hawaiiensis

Anthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis

Anthias (Pseudanthias) hawaiiensis

Pseudanthias ventralis

Pseudanthias hawaiiensis

Pseudanthias ventralis ventralis

Pseudanthias ventralis hawaiiensis

Pseudanthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis ventralis

Pseudanthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis hawaiiensis

“Name” sensu Botany: 9

“Name” sensu Zoology: 4

Anthias

Pseudanthias

ventralis

hawaiiensis

slide10

The Concept of Authorship

In Zoology:

Anthias ventralisRandall 1979

Anthias hawaiiensisLubbock 1985

Pseudanthias ventralis(Randall 1979)

Pseudanthias hawaiiensis(Lubbock 1985)

Anthias ventralisRandall 1979 ex Thompson

In Botany:

Anthias ventralisRand.

Anthias hawaiiensisLub.

Pseudanthias ventralis(Rand.)R.Pyle

Pseudanthias hawaiiensis(Lub.)R.Pyle

Anthias ventralisThomp. ex Rand.

slide11

Infraspecifc Ranks

In Zoology:

Anthias ventralisRandall 1979

Anthias hawaiiensisLubbock 1985

Pseudanthias ventralis(Randall 1979)

Pseudanthias hawaiiensis(Lubbock 1985)

Anthias ventralisRandall 1979 ex Thompson 1950

Anthias ventralishawaiiensisLubbock 1985

In Botany:

Anthias ventralisRand.

Anthias hawaiiensisLub.

Pseudanthias ventralis(Rand.)R.Pyle

Pseudanthias hawaiiensis(Lub.)R.Pyle

Anthias ventralisThomp. ex Rand.

Anthias ventralis subsp. hawaiiensis(Lub.) J.Smith

Anthias ventralis var. hawaiiensis(Lub.) B.Jones

Anthias ventralis subsp. hawaiiensis var. typus(Br.) Rand.

Anthias ventralis subsp. typus(Br.) R.Pyle

Anthias hawaiiensis subsp. typus(L.) R.Pyle

slide12

The Concept of Basionym

In Zoology:

Anthias ventralisRandall 1979

Anthias hawaiiensisLubbock 1985

Pseudanthias ventralis(Randall 1979)

Pseudanthias hawaiiensis(Lubbock 1985)

In Botany:

Anthias ventralisRand.

Anthias hawaiiensisLub.

Pseudanthias ventralis(Rand.)R.Pyle

Pseudanthias hawaiiensis(Lub.)R.Pyle

slide13

More Confusing Differences

In Zoology:

In Botany:

“Available”

“Validly Published”

“Valid”

“Correct Name”

“Junior Synonym”

“Homotypic Synonym”

“Senior Synonym”

“Heteroptypic Synonym”

Anthias ventralisRandall 1979

= Anthias hawaiiensisLubbock 1985

Pseudanthias ventralis(Rand.)R.Pyle

=Anthias ventralisRand.

=Anthias hawaiiensisLub.

slide14

Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904

HOLOTYPE:USNM 50881

Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904SECSnyder 1904

The World of Taxonomy

The Real World

slide15

Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922SECNorman 1922

Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904

HOLOTYPE:USNM 50881

Holacanthus acanthopsNorman 1922

HOLOTYPE:BMNH 1922.1.13.38

slide16

XiphypopsJordan 1922

TYPE SPECIES:Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904

Xiphypops fisheri(Snyder 1904)SECJordan 1922= Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904 SECSnyder 1904

Xiphypops fisheri(Snyder 1904)

Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904

HOLOTYPE:USNM 50881

Holacanthus acanthopsNorman 1922

HOLOTYPE:BMNH 1922.1.13.38

slide17

Centropyge flavicaudaFraser-Brunner 1933SECFraser-Brunner 1933

Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)SECFraser-Brunner 1933= Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904 SECSnyder 1904= Xiphypops fisheri(Snyder 1904) SECJordan 1922

Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922)SECFraser-Brunner 1933= Holacanthus acanthopsNorman 1922SECNorman 1922

Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)

Xiphypops fisheri(Snyder 1904)

Centropyge acanthops(Norman 1922)

Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904

HOLOTYPE:USNM 50881

Holacanthus acanthopsNorman 1922

HOLOTYPE:BMNH 1922.1.13.38

Centropyge flavicaudaFraser-Brunner 1933

HOLOTYPE:BMNH 1894.4.24.4

slide18

Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)SECPyle 2003> Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904 SECSnyder 1904> Xiphypops fisheri(Snyder 1904) SECJordan 1922> Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)SECFraser-Brunner 1933> Centropyge flavicaudaFraser-Brunner 1933SECFraser-Brunner 1933= Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)SECFraser-Brunner 1933 +Centropyge flavicaudaFraser-Brunner 1933SECFraser-Brunner 1933

Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922)SECPyle 2003= Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922SECNorman 1922= Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922)SECFraser-Brunner 1933

Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)

Xiphypops fisheri(Snyder 1904)

Centropyge acanthops(Norman 1922)

Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904

HOLOTYPE:USNM 50881

Holacanthus acanthopsNorman 1922

HOLOTYPE:BMNH 1922.1.13.38

Centropyge flavicaudaFraser-Brunner 1933

HOLOTYPE:BMNH 1894.4.24.4

slide19

Taxon Names and Databases

Specimen Database

Taxon Name Authority

slide20

Taxon Names and Databases

Specimen Database

Taxon Name Authority

slide21

Taxon Names and Databases

Specimen Database

Taxon Name Authority

Determination

slide22

fisheri

caudoxanthorus

flavicauda

acanthops

1

4

3

2

Taxon Concepts

Taxon Names

Publications

PID Citation

CID NID PID Full Name

NID NameElement

1 Snyder 1904

10 1 1 Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904

1 fisheri Snyder

2 Norman 1922

2 acanthops Norman

11 2 2 Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922

3 Jordan 1922

3 flavicauda Fra.-Br.

121 3 Xiphypops fisheriSnyder 1904

4 Fra.-Br. 1933

4 caudoxanthourusShen.

13 3 4Centropyge flavicaudaFra.-Br. 1933

5 Shen 1973

14 1 4Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)

6 Allen 1980

15 2 4Centropyge acanthops(Norman 1922)

7 Smith 1985

16 4 5 Centropyge caudoxanthourus Shen 1973

8 Pyle 2003

17 36Centropyge flavicaudaFra.-Br. 1933

9Schindler, 2004

18 46=Centropyge caudoxanthourusShen 1973

19 37Centropyge flavicaudaFra.-Br. 1933

2018Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)

21 28=Centropyge flavicaudaFra.-Br. 1933

22 38=Centropyge caudoxanthourusShen 1973

23 48Centropyge acanthops(Norman 1922)

2419Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)

slide23

Taxon Concept Authority

Specimen

Database

Determination

Publication Authority