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Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion

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  1. Names, Concepts, Codes and Lots of Confusion An Introduction to Taxonomic Names of Organisms Richard L. Pyle Bishop Museum, Honolulu Taxonomic Databases Working GroupFremantle, 19 October 2008

  2. “A necessary evil.” - Randall Kosaki Taxonomy is... “The perpetual re-classification of mis-named species.”

  3. Images: Biodiversity Heritage Library

  4. Image: Biodiversity Heritage Library Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778 Image: Wikimedia Commons

  5. Codes of Nomenclature International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) • Governs scientific names of plants and fungi • First established in 1867, and formalized in 1930 • Fixes 1 May 1753 as official start (Linnaeus’ Species Plantarum) • Governed by the International Botanical Congress (IBC) • Managed by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy • Updated every 6 years at the IBC (currently 2006 Vienna Code; next edition 2011) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature • Governs scientific names of animals • First established in 1895 • Fixes 1 January 1758 as official start (Linnaeus’ Systema Naturae) • Governed by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) • Managed by a Secretariat • Updated as needed (currently 4th Edition; 5th Edition in early drafting stage) International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) • Governs scientific names of bacteria • Initial bacteriological code in 1947 discarded, and ICNB established in 1980 • Fixes 1 January 1980 as official start • Governed by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP) International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) International Society for Phylogenetic Nomenclature (ISPN)

  6. Pomacanthus imperator Holacanthus bishopi Why all the Fuss? Better Communication! Multiple Names for the Same Organism (Synonyms)

  7. Centropyge flavissima Centropyge flavissima Why all the Fuss? Better Communication! Multiple Names for the Same Organism (Synonyms) Pomacanthus imperator = Holacanthus bishopi Same Name for Multiple Organisms (Homonyms)

  8. Centropyge flavissima Why all the Fuss? Better Communication! Multiple Names for the Same Organism (Synonyms) Pomacanthus imperator = Holacanthus bishopi Same Name for Multiple Organisms (Homonyms) Centropyge heraldi = Centropyge flavissima

  9. What Is a Name? What’s In a Name? “Name” as Text String: 13 Anthias Pseudanthias Anthias (Pseudanthias) Anthias ventralis Anthias hawaiiensis Anthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis Anthias (Pseudanthias) hawaiiensis Pseudanthias ventralis Pseudanthias hawaiiensis Pseudanthias ventralis ventralis Pseudanthias ventralis hawaiiensis Pseudanthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis ventralis Pseudanthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis hawaiiensis “Name” sensu Botany: 9 “Name” sensu Zoology: 4 Anthias Pseudanthias ventralis hawaiiensis

  10. The Concept of Authorship In Zoology: Anthias ventralisRandall 1979 Anthias hawaiiensisLubbock 1985 Pseudanthias ventralis(Randall 1979) Pseudanthias hawaiiensis(Lubbock 1985) Anthias ventralisRandall 1979 ex Thompson In Botany: Anthias ventralisRand. Anthias hawaiiensisLub. Pseudanthias ventralis(Rand.)R.Pyle Pseudanthias hawaiiensis(Lub.)R.Pyle Anthias ventralisThomp. ex Rand.

  11. Infraspecifc Ranks In Zoology: Anthias ventralisRandall 1979 Anthias hawaiiensisLubbock 1985 Pseudanthias ventralis(Randall 1979) Pseudanthias hawaiiensis(Lubbock 1985) Anthias ventralisRandall 1979 ex Thompson 1950 Anthias ventralishawaiiensisLubbock 1985 In Botany: Anthias ventralisRand. Anthias hawaiiensisLub. Pseudanthias ventralis(Rand.)R.Pyle Pseudanthias hawaiiensis(Lub.)R.Pyle Anthias ventralisThomp. ex Rand. Anthias ventralis subsp. hawaiiensis(Lub.) J.Smith Anthias ventralis var. hawaiiensis(Lub.) B.Jones Anthias ventralis subsp. hawaiiensis var. typus(Br.) Rand. Anthias ventralis subsp. typus(Br.) R.Pyle Anthias hawaiiensis subsp. typus(L.) R.Pyle

  12. The Concept of Basionym In Zoology: Anthias ventralisRandall 1979 Anthias hawaiiensisLubbock 1985 Pseudanthias ventralis(Randall 1979) Pseudanthias hawaiiensis(Lubbock 1985) In Botany: Anthias ventralisRand. Anthias hawaiiensisLub. Pseudanthias ventralis(Rand.)R.Pyle Pseudanthias hawaiiensis(Lub.)R.Pyle

  13. More Confusing Differences In Zoology: In Botany: “Available” “Validly Published” “Valid” “Correct Name” “Junior Synonym” “Homotypic Synonym” “Senior Synonym” “Heteroptypic Synonym” Anthias ventralisRandall 1979 = Anthias hawaiiensisLubbock 1985 Pseudanthias ventralis(Rand.)R.Pyle =Anthias ventralisRand. =Anthias hawaiiensisLub.

  14. Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904 HOLOTYPE:USNM 50881 Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904SECSnyder 1904 The World of Taxonomy The Real World

  15. Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922SECNorman 1922 Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904 HOLOTYPE:USNM 50881 Holacanthus acanthopsNorman 1922 HOLOTYPE:BMNH 1922.1.13.38

  16. XiphypopsJordan 1922 TYPE SPECIES:Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904 Xiphypops fisheri(Snyder 1904)SECJordan 1922= Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904 SECSnyder 1904 Xiphypops fisheri(Snyder 1904) Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904 HOLOTYPE:USNM 50881 Holacanthus acanthopsNorman 1922 HOLOTYPE:BMNH 1922.1.13.38

  17. Centropyge flavicaudaFraser-Brunner 1933SECFraser-Brunner 1933 Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)SECFraser-Brunner 1933= Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904 SECSnyder 1904= Xiphypops fisheri(Snyder 1904) SECJordan 1922 Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922)SECFraser-Brunner 1933= Holacanthus acanthopsNorman 1922SECNorman 1922 Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904) Xiphypops fisheri(Snyder 1904) Centropyge acanthops(Norman 1922) Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904 HOLOTYPE:USNM 50881 Holacanthus acanthopsNorman 1922 HOLOTYPE:BMNH 1922.1.13.38 Centropyge flavicaudaFraser-Brunner 1933 HOLOTYPE:BMNH 1894.4.24.4

  18. Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)SECPyle 2003> Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904 SECSnyder 1904> Xiphypops fisheri(Snyder 1904) SECJordan 1922> Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)SECFraser-Brunner 1933> Centropyge flavicaudaFraser-Brunner 1933SECFraser-Brunner 1933= Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)SECFraser-Brunner 1933 +Centropyge flavicaudaFraser-Brunner 1933SECFraser-Brunner 1933 Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922)SECPyle 2003= Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922SECNorman 1922= Centropyge acanthops (Norman 1922)SECFraser-Brunner 1933 Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904) Xiphypops fisheri(Snyder 1904) Centropyge acanthops(Norman 1922) Holacanthus fisheriSnyder 1904 HOLOTYPE:USNM 50881 Holacanthus acanthopsNorman 1922 HOLOTYPE:BMNH 1922.1.13.38 Centropyge flavicaudaFraser-Brunner 1933 HOLOTYPE:BMNH 1894.4.24.4

  19. Taxon Names and Databases Specimen Database Taxon Name Authority

  20. Taxon Names and Databases Specimen Database Taxon Name Authority

  21. Taxon Names and Databases Specimen Database Taxon Name Authority Determination

  22. fisheri caudoxanthorus flavicauda acanthops 1 4 3 2 Taxon Concepts Taxon Names Publications PID Citation CID NID PID Full Name NID NameElement 1 Snyder 1904 10 1 1 Holacanthus fisheri Snyder 1904 1 fisheri Snyder 2 Norman 1922 2 acanthops Norman 11 2 2 Holacanthus acanthops Norman 1922 3 Jordan 1922 3 flavicauda Fra.-Br. 121 3 Xiphypops fisheriSnyder 1904 4 Fra.-Br. 1933 4 caudoxanthourusShen. 13 3 4Centropyge flavicaudaFra.-Br. 1933 5 Shen 1973 14 1 4Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904) 6 Allen 1980 15 2 4Centropyge acanthops(Norman 1922) 7 Smith 1985 16 4 5 Centropyge caudoxanthourus Shen 1973 8 Pyle 2003 17 36Centropyge flavicaudaFra.-Br. 1933 9Schindler, 2004 18 46=Centropyge caudoxanthourusShen 1973 19 37Centropyge flavicaudaFra.-Br. 1933 2018Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904) 21 28=Centropyge flavicaudaFra.-Br. 1933 22 38=Centropyge caudoxanthourusShen 1973 23 48Centropyge acanthops(Norman 1922) 2419Centropyge fisheri(Snyder 1904)

  23. Taxon Concept Authority Specimen Database Determination Publication Authority