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Lesson 2 in Legal Citation Fall 2003. Learning How to Use the Bluebook. The Leader Board- Section E. Haffner, Hudson & Williams, LLC. 19 Carter, Holifield & White 14 Jorge Posada Firm, LLP 13 A & M 12 Wishful Thinkers 11 Bluebooks 10 Brown, Garvich & Emfinger 10.

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lesson 2 in legal citation fall 2003

Lesson 2 in Legal CitationFall 2003

Learning How to Use the Bluebook

the leader board section e
The Leader Board- Section E
  • Haffner, Hudson & Williams, LLC. 19
  • Carter, Holifield & White 14
  • Jorge Posada Firm, LLP 13
  • A & M 12
  • Wishful Thinkers 11
  • Bluebooks 10
  • Brown, Garvich & Emfinger 10
the leader board section f
The Leader Board- Section F
  • Bukley & McCarson 19
  • Avant, Parker, deGruy, Evnas 15
  • Abbey & Joshua 13
  • Espy 12
  • Conley, Doehner, Parker & Shah 9
  • Cherry, Green, Porter, & Tidwell 7
  • Webster & Stewart 1
rule 10 how to cite case law
Rule 10: How to Cite Case Law
  • 1) Citing Cases Generally
  • 2) Abbreviations of Case Names
  • 3) Citing State Cases
  • 4) Citing Federal Cases
  • 5) Short Form Citations
citing state courts rule 10 4 b t 1
Citing State Courts (Rule 10.4(b)/T.1)
  • In general , your cite should indicate the state and the court of decision in the parenthetical.
  • Smith v. State, 745 So. 2d 922 (Ala. Crim. App. 1999).
  • BUT, do not include the name of the court, if the decision is the highest court of the state.
  • Britton v. Doehring, 242 So. 2d 666 (Ala. 1970).
citing state courts rule 10 4 t 1
Citing State Courts(Rule 10.4/T.1)
  • However, if the name of the state appears in the REPORTER TITLE then you should leave it out of the parenthetical.
  • Tomsik v. Kramer, 499 Mass. 376 (1868).
citing state courts rule 10 4 b
Citing State CourtsRule 10.4(b)
  • Check Table T.1 for each jurisdiction.
  • Alabama
  • For the Alabama Supreme Court, cite to So. or So. 2d. If therein otherwise cite . . .
  • Britton v. Doehring, 242 So. 2d 666 (Ala. 1970).
  • For the Court of Appeals cite to So. or So. 2d if therein otherwise site to Ala. App.
  • Smith v. State, 745 So. 2d 922 (Ala. Crim. App. 1999).
citation ciphering state cases
Citation CipheringState cases
  • Cite the holding of an Alabama Court of Civil Appeals case, reported at 723 So. 2d 55 and on page 57 decided in 1997 where Kevin Wright, a minor, by and through his next friend Judy Wright, sue Calvin Reid Construction Company and Dennis Reid.
  • Wright ex. rel. Wright v. Calvin Reid Constr. Co., 723 So. 2d 55, 57 (Ala. Civ. App. 1997)
  • or
  • Wright v. Calvin Reid Constr. Co., 723 So. 2d 55, 57(Ala. Civ. App. 1997)
rule 10 how to cite case law1
Rule 10: How to Cite Case Law
  • 1) Citing Cases Generally
  • 2) Abbreviations of Case Names
  • 3) Citing State Cases
  • 4) Citing Federal Cases
  • 5) Short Form Citations
citing federal cases
Citing Federal Cases
  • For the United States Supreme Court: Cite to the United States Reports (U.S.)
  • Pulley v. Hair, 465 U.S. 37 (1984).
  • Use the Supreme Court Reporter (S.Ct.) or the Lawyer’s Edition (L. Ed.) only if the opinion is not yet published in the United States Reports. If not yet reported there, cite to United States Law Week (U.S.L.W.) or a computer database.
citing federal courts of appeal
Citing Federal Courts of Appeal
  • Cite West’s Federal Reporter (F., F.2d or F.3d). The name of the circuit and the year go in the parenthetical.
  • Krammer v. Krammer, 202 F.2d 1044 (11th Cir. 1980).
citing federal district courts and other federal courts
Citing Federal District Courts and Other Federal Courts
  • Cite West’s Federal Supplement (F. Supp), Federal Rules Decision (F.R.D.) or the Bankruptcy Reporter (B.R.)
  • The court and date go in the parenthetical. “D” if there is one district. The particular abbreviations if there are more than one:
  • Coyote v. A.C.M.E. Corp., 600 F. Supp. 2d 444 (N.D. Ala. 1995).
  • Not (D. Ala. 1995)
citation ciphering federal cases
Citation CipheringFederal cases
  • What is the correct citation for a case where Mr. Dooku sues a Mr. Yoda decided by the Southern District of New York in 1985 and reported in volume 100 of West’s Federal Supplement, page 200 ?
  • Dooku v. Yoda, 100 F. Supp. 200 (S.D.N.Y. 1985).
short forms for cases
Short forms for cases
  • The first time you mention a case,you should give the full cite. Insubsequent references to that case use the proper short form. See Bluebook Rule 10.9.
  • In text, you simply refer to the first name of the case (In Brown,) Except State v. Hutchcraft becomes, In Hutchcraft.
short forms for cases1
Short forms for cases

If there are no intervening cites, orin other words if you are citing a caseimmediately previously cited you shoulduse Id. If the page number is differentuse Id. at __, otherwise just use Id.

See for example the form for a case discussion:

In Britt v. Doehring, 242 So. 2d 666 (Ala. 1970), the plaintiff . . . (don’t cite facts). The court held… Id. at 675. The court further explained that… Id.

short forms for cases2
Short forms for cases

When there are cites between, useone of the other following short formsto refer to a case previously cited.

Baker v. Verbatim, Inc., 204 So. 2d 101 (Ala. Civ. App. 1980) may be shortened in any of the following ways:

  • Baker v. Verbatim, Inc., 204 So. 2d at 104.Baker, 204 So. 2d at 104.204 So. 2d at 104. (When the name is in the text)
citation ciphering short forms
Citation CipheringShort forms
  • Where there is an intervening cite and where the material you want to cite is on page 180 in the Southern Reporter 2d, give two acceptable short cites for: Lopez v. Affleck, 50 So. 2d 177 (Ala. 1997).
  • Lopez v. Affleck, 50 So. 2d at 180.Lopez, 50 So. 2d at 180.
citing statutes
Citing Statutes

Federal Statutes

State Statutes

Short form - Statutes

federal statutes
Federal Statutes
  • Cite to the United States Code (U.S.C.) Use the title number, the abbreviated name of the code, the number of the section or subsection, and the date of the edition. You may also include the name of the act:

42 U.S.C. § 3412(a) (1940).

    • OR

Narcotic Rehabilitation Act of 1966, 42 U.S.C. § 3412(a) (1970).

state statutes
State Statutes
  • Check Table T.1 for each jurisdiction.
  • Alabama
  • Cite to the official code unless only an unofficial compilation is available:
  • Ala. Code § 10-12-48 (1985)
annotated codes federal or state
Annotated Codes (Federal or State)
  • I f the code cited is not published under the supervision of governmental officials, you must identify the publisher in the parenthetical that contains the year of publication:
  • Federal
  • 42 U.S.C.A. § 322 (West 1997)
  • 42 U.S.C.S. § 322 (Law. Co-op. 1997)
  • State:
  • Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 47 (West 1997)
citing multiple code sections rule 3 4 b
Citing multiple code sectionsRule 3.4(b)
  • When citing consecutive sections or subsections, give inclusive numbers; do not use “et. seq.” Identical digits or letters preceding a punctuation mark may be omitted, unless doing so would create confusion. Otherwise retain all digits.
  • Mont Code Ann. §§ 75-1-301 to -324 (1990).
year of the code rule 12 3 2
Year of the code Rule 12.3.2
  • When citing a bound volume of the current official code, provide parenthetically the year that appears on the spine on the volume, the year tat appears on the title page, or the latest copyright year-in that order of preference. If the volume is a replacement of an earlier edition, sue the year of the replacement volume, not the year of the original.
citation ciphering federal statutes
Citation CipheringFederal Statutes
  • Using the name of the act, give a correct cite for section 3(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act, found in volume 5 of the United States Code, passed in 1970.
  • Admin. Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. § 3(b) (1970).
citation ciphering state statutes
Citation CipheringState statutes
  • What is correct cite for §§ 3-6-5, 3-6-6, 3-6-7 in a 1990 replacement volume of Colorado’s 1975 official code.
  • Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 3-6-5 to -7 (1990)
short forms for statutes
Short Forms for Statutes
  • Bluebook Rule 12.9
  • 42 U.S.C. § 1983 (1988) may be shortened as:
  • 42 U.S.C. § 1983 or
  • § 1983
  • Ala. Code § 12-36-204 (1987) may become:
  • § 12-36-204 (unless starting a sentence)
citation ciphering short forms1
Citation CipheringShort Forms
  • § 12-3-9 is the short cite for what full cite of a Wyoming statute published in the 1985 version of the Wyoming Statutes Annotated?
  • Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 12-3-9 (Michie 1985).
citation signals bluebook rule 1 2
Citation Signals BLUEBOOK RULE 1.2
  • Citation Signals can be a short form of case citation. They also indicate the purpose for which a source is cited.
  • No signal indicates that the citation is authority for the proposition of law stated.
the form of citation signals
The Form of Citation Signals
  • Signals are always underscored or italicized when they appear in citation sentences. (P1(c)).
  • There are supportive, comparative, contradictory, and background signals. Rule 1.3. (See, see also, compare …with, etc.)
citations indicating support
Citations IndicatingSupport
  • “See” indicates support and should be used if the proposition o f law obviously flows from the source.
  • States have required defendants to prove both insanity and self-defense. SeeState v. Caryl, 543 P.2d 389, 390 (Mont. 1975); State v. Hinson, 172 S.E.2d 548, 551 (S.C. 1970).
citations indicating support parentheticals
Citations Indicating SupportParentheticals
  • “See also” is used for an additional source which supports the proposition and where the sources which directly state or support the proposition have already been discussed. A parenthetical should explain the relevance of the source.
  • It was clear from all the following cases that a kitchen tool is not a dangerous instrument. See also, Ronko v. Bond, 9 F.3d 2, 9 (2d Cir. 1993) (Salad shooter held not to be a dangerous instrument).
citation ciphering parentheticals
Citation CipheringParentheticals
  • Using a supportive citation signal and parenthetical to cite an Illinois Supreme Court decision, The Tribune Company v. Bartman, rendered in 2003 and reported in 456 N.E.2d 202, 205, where the court held that a fan could not be civilly liable for interfering with the outcome of a game by catching a fly ball.
  • SeealsoTribune Co. v Bartman, 456 N.E.2d 202, 205 (Ill. 2003) (where the court held that a fan could not be civilly liable for interfering with the outcome of a game by catching a fly ball.)
order of signals authorities
Order of signals/authorities
  • The order of signals is supportive, comparative, contradictory or background. (Rule 1.3)
  • Authorities within each signal are separated by semicolons and follow along with weight of authority. (Rule 1.4)