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MATERIALIZATION …In order to understand architecture, it is important that we should keep in mind the most subtle and powerful principle of all arts: the agreement between material and form, made as intimate and thorough as possible by the nature of things.

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MATERIALIZATION

…In order to understand architecture, it is important that we should keep

in mind the most subtle and powerful principle of all arts:

the agreement between material and form, made as intimate and thorough

as possible by the nature of things.

….The fusion of these two elements is the absolute aim of all great art….the simplest example is offered by poetry which cannot exist without the close association or the magic symbiosis of sound and meaning…

Paul Valery


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MATERIALIZATION

1. The Materials

2. The Enclosure

3. Structural Systems

4. Composition of the Building


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1. THE MATERIALS

Selection of materials should be done with a high

degree of coordination:

a)seeking material unity

(large number of different materials tend to

create a sense of disunity )

b)atmosphere or feeling (expression)

c)texture compatibility (association among

materials)

d)surrounding buildings (uses and patterns)






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2. THE ENCLOSURE

enclosure

The materialization of the is the

creation of the physical shell around the building spaces.

This materialization is concerned with the relationships between:

the enclosing planes,

the openings, and

the elements of the structure


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2. THE ENCLOSURE

The enclosing planes of a building include its...

roof, ceiling, floor and walls

  • Roofs and Ceilings:

  • - The roof plane and the ceiling plane may be the

  • same (i.e. wood deck) or two different surfaces

  • (dropped ceiling)

  • - Avoid roof situations that trap water.

  • - The protection of overhangs should be used only

  • when needed.

  • Floors:

  • - In multi-story and basement conditions, the floor is

  • similar to the roof framing.

  • - Where land contours are pronounced, floor levels of

  • spaces may impose upon or be in sympathy with the

  • land.

  • Walls:

  • - Walls may be structural (bearing other loads) or non

  • structural (only holding up their own weight)

  • - Non-structural walls are used for barriers or filters

  • between two conflicting or incompatible situations:

  • walls may be temperature, acoustic or visual barriers.


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2. THE ENCLOSURE

Openings in buildings may take several forms:

Openings should be woven into the entire building geometry as strongly as possible

doors, windows, skylights, etc.

  • Doors

  • - Door placement should relate to the circulation

  • system in the building and spaces. It determines the

  • number of used areas formed in a space.

  • - Doors should rest against a wall when open. This

  • minimizes swing area needed and door interference

  • with space activities.

  • - Interior doors swing into its space while exterior

  • doors swing out.

  • Windows

  • - The extent and placement of window openings

  • should relate to space need for view, light or

  • protection from outside forces.

  • - Window sill height should relate to furniture height

  • where furniture is against a wall at a window.

  • - Window placement must respond to view orientation

  • of spaces.


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    3. THE STRUCTURE

    3.1. Structural Requirements

    3.2. Structure Types

    3.2.1. Post and Beam Structures

    3.2.2. Arches and Vaulted Halls, and Domes

    3.2.3. Portal Frames

    3.2.4. Trusses

    3.2.5. Space Frames

    3.2.6. Folded Roofs

    3.2.7. Shells

    3.2.8. Tensile Structures

    3.3.DETERMINATION OF THE STRUCTURAL FORM

    3.3.1. Design Strategies

    3.3.2. Selection Of The Generic Type Of Structure

    3.3.3. Selection Of Structural Material


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    3. The Structure3.1. STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS

    • DURABILITY

    • The durability of the structure depends entirely in the physical/chemical conditions

    • of the structural material, and our willingness to continue using the building ( at the

    • end of the lifecycle of a building, it may be demolished)

    • STABILITY AND EQUILLIBRIUM

    • When the structure is stable and in equilibrium it resists any load without suffering

    • a major change of shape or collapsing.

    • STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY

    • Strength and rigidity are reached by the adequate specification of geometry, size,

    • and the material of the structural elements. In example, for resisting the same

    • structural load, a steel structural element needs a smaller cross section than a

    • reinforced concrete element, and this is due to the difference between the

    • strength of the kind of materials.


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    3. The Structure3.1. MORE ABOUT STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS: LOADS


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    3. The Structure3.1. MORE ABOUT STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS: LOADS


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    3. The Structure3.1. MORE ABOUT STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS: LOADS


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    3. The Structure3.1. MORE ABOUT STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS: LOADS


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    3. The Structure3.2. STRUCTURE TYPES

    ROOFS SUPPORTED WITH

    VERTICAL ELEMENTS

    SUBJECTS OF TENSION:

    MASTED STRUCTURES

    ROOFS SUPPORTED WITH

    VERTICAL ELEMENTS

    SUBJECTS OF COMPRESSION:

    POST AND BEAM

    STRUCTURES:

    - LOAD BEARING WALLS

    - SKELETON FRAME

    ROOF

    STRUCTURES

    - ARCHES, VAULTED HALLS, AND DOMES

    - PORTAL FRAMES

    - TRUSSES

    - SPACE FRAMES

    - FOLDED ROOFS

    - SHELLS

    - MEMBRANES AND TENTS


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    3. The Structure3.2. MORE ABOUT STRUCTURE TYPES: MATERIALIZATION OF A CUBE


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.1.POST AND BEAM STRUCTURES

    • Most architectural structures are of the post-and-beam type.

    • Post and beam buildings carry the weight of their structural components

    • (and the weight of objects and people in them) by bearing on one another.

    • The weight of the roof and beams is carried by the posts down to the foundation

    • and then into the ground. Horizontal beams are subject to bending loads,

    • therefore the structural materials should be able of resisting both tension and

    • compression.

    • We can further subdivide the post and beam structures into:


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.1.MORE ABOUTPOST AND BEAM STRUCTURES: LOAD BEARING WALLS


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.1.MORE ABOUTPOST AND BEAM STRUCTURES: LOAD BEARING WALLS


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.1.MORE ABOUTPOST AND BEAM STRUCTURES: LOAD BEARING WALLS


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.1.MORE ABOUTPOST AND BEAM STRUCTURES: SKELETON FRAME


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.2.ARCHES, VAULTED HALLS, AND DOMES


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.2.MORE ABOUTARCHES AND VAULTED ROOFS


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.2.MORE ABOUTDOMES


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.3.PORTAL FRAMES


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.3. MORE ABOUT PORTAL FRAMES


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.4.TRUSSES


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.4. MORE ABOUT TRUSSES


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.5.SPACE FRAMES


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.5.MORE ABOUT SPACE FRAMES


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.5.MORE ABOUT SPACE FRAMES


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.6.FOLDED ROOFS


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.6. MORE ABOUT FOLDED ROOFS


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.7.SHELLS


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.7. MORE ABOUT SHELLS


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.7. MORE ABOUT SHELLS


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.8.TENSILE STRUCTURES


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.8.MORE ABOUT TENSILE STRUCTURES


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.8.MORE ABOUT TENSILE STRUCTURES


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    3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.8.MORE ABOUT TENSILE STRUCTURES


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    3. The Structure3.3. DETERMINATION OF THE STRUCTURAL FORM


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    3. The Structure3.3. Determination Of The Structural Form3.3.1.DESIGN STRATEGIES


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    3. The Structure3.3. Determination Of The Structural Form3.3.2.SELECTION OF THE GENERIC TYPE OF STRUCTURE


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    3. The Structure3.3. Determination Of The Structural Form3.3.3.SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL MATERIAL


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    4. COMPOSITION OF THE BUILDING4.1. ARTICULATION AND CONTINUITY


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    4. COMPOSITION OF THE BUILDING4.1. MORE ABOUT ARTICULATION AND CONTINUITY


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    4. COMPOSITION OF THE BUILDING4.2. CORNER ARTICULATION


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    4. COMPOSITION OF THE BUILDING4.2. MORE ABOUT CORNER ARTICULATION


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    4. COMPOSITION OF THE BUILDING4.2. MORE ABOUT CORNER ARTICULATION


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    4. COMPOSITION OF THE BUILDING4.2. MORE ABOUT CORNER ARTICULATION


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    References

    • Architecture and Engineering: An illustrated Teacher’s Manual on Why Buildings Stand Up, Mario Salvadori and Michael Temple, The New York Academy of Sciences, 1983.

    • Elements of Architecture, Pierre Von Meiss, ISBN 0-747-60014-7.

    • Form, Function & Design, Paul Jacques Grillo, ISBN 0-486-20182-1.

    • Structural Design for Architecture, Angus Macdonald, Architectural Press, Oxford 1997.