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MATERIALIZATION …In order to understand architecture, it is important that we should keep in mind the most subtle and powerful principle of all arts: the agreement between material and form, made as intimate and thorough as possible by the nature of things.

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materialization
MATERIALIZATION

…In order to understand architecture, it is important that we should keep

in mind the most subtle and powerful principle of all arts:

the agreement between material and form, made as intimate and thorough

as possible by the nature of things.

….The fusion of these two elements is the absolute aim of all great art….the simplest example is offered by poetry which cannot exist without the close association or the magic symbiosis of sound and meaning…

Paul Valery

materialization3
MATERIALIZATION

1. The Materials

2. The Enclosure

3. Structural Systems

4. Composition of the Building

1 the materials
1. THE MATERIALS

Selection of materials should be done with a high

degree of coordination:

a)seeking material unity

(large number of different materials tend to

create a sense of disunity )

b)atmosphere or feeling (expression)

c)texture compatibility (association among

materials)

d)surrounding buildings (uses and patterns)

slide9

2. THE ENCLOSURE

enclosure

The materialization of the is the

creation of the physical shell around the building spaces.

This materialization is concerned with the relationships between:

the enclosing planes,

the openings, and

the elements of the structure

slide10

2. THE ENCLOSURE

The enclosing planes of a building include its...

roof, ceiling, floor and walls

  • Roofs and Ceilings:
  • - The roof plane and the ceiling plane may be the
  • same (i.e. wood deck) or two different surfaces
  • (dropped ceiling)
  • - Avoid roof situations that trap water.
  • - The protection of overhangs should be used only
  • when needed.
  • Floors:
  • - In multi-story and basement conditions, the floor is
  • similar to the roof framing.
  • - Where land contours are pronounced, floor levels of
  • spaces may impose upon or be in sympathy with the
  • land.
  • Walls:
  • - Walls may be structural (bearing other loads) or non
  • structural (only holding up their own weight)
  • - Non-structural walls are used for barriers or filters
  • between two conflicting or incompatible situations:
  • walls may be temperature, acoustic or visual barriers.
slide11

2. THE ENCLOSURE

Openings in buildings may take several forms:

Openings should be woven into the entire building geometry as strongly as possible

doors, windows, skylights, etc.

      • Doors
      • - Door placement should relate to the circulation
      • system in the building and spaces. It determines the
      • number of used areas formed in a space.
      • - Doors should rest against a wall when open. This
      • minimizes swing area needed and door interference
      • with space activities.
      • - Interior doors swing into its space while exterior
      • doors swing out.
      • Windows
      • - The extent and placement of window openings
      • should relate to space need for view, light or
      • protection from outside forces.
      • - Window sill height should relate to furniture height
      • where furniture is against a wall at a window.
  • - Window placement must respond to view orientation
  • of spaces.
3 the structure
3. THE STRUCTURE

3.1. Structural Requirements

3.2. Structure Types

3.2.1. Post and Beam Structures

3.2.2. Arches and Vaulted Halls, and Domes

3.2.3. Portal Frames

3.2.4. Trusses

3.2.5. Space Frames

3.2.6. Folded Roofs

3.2.7. Shells

3.2.8. Tensile Structures

3.3.DETERMINATION OF THE STRUCTURAL FORM

3.3.1. Design Strategies

3.3.2. Selection Of The Generic Type Of Structure

3.3.3. Selection Of Structural Material

slide13

3. The Structure3.1. STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS

  • DURABILITY
  • The durability of the structure depends entirely in the physical/chemical conditions
  • of the structural material, and our willingness to continue using the building ( at the
  • end of the lifecycle of a building, it may be demolished)
  • STABILITY AND EQUILLIBRIUM
  • When the structure is stable and in equilibrium it resists any load without suffering
  • a major change of shape or collapsing.
  • STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY
  • Strength and rigidity are reached by the adequate specification of geometry, size,
  • and the material of the structural elements. In example, for resisting the same
  • structural load, a steel structural element needs a smaller cross section than a
  • reinforced concrete element, and this is due to the difference between the
  • strength of the kind of materials.
slide18

3. The Structure3.2. STRUCTURE TYPES

ROOFS SUPPORTED WITH

VERTICAL ELEMENTS

SUBJECTS OF TENSION:

MASTED STRUCTURES

ROOFS SUPPORTED WITH

VERTICAL ELEMENTS

SUBJECTS OF COMPRESSION:

POST AND BEAM

STRUCTURES:

- LOAD BEARING WALLS

- SKELETON FRAME

ROOF

STRUCTURES

- ARCHES, VAULTED HALLS, AND DOMES

- PORTAL FRAMES

- TRUSSES

- SPACE FRAMES

- FOLDED ROOFS

- SHELLS

- MEMBRANES AND TENTS

slide20

3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.1.POST AND BEAM STRUCTURES

  • Most architectural structures are of the post-and-beam type.
  • Post and beam buildings carry the weight of their structural components
  • (and the weight of objects and people in them) by bearing on one another.
  • The weight of the roof and beams is carried by the posts down to the foundation
  • and then into the ground. Horizontal beams are subject to bending loads,
  • therefore the structural materials should be able of resisting both tension and
  • compression.
  • We can further subdivide the post and beam structures into:
slide21

3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.1.MORE ABOUTPOST AND BEAM STRUCTURES: LOAD BEARING WALLS

slide22

3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.1.MORE ABOUTPOST AND BEAM STRUCTURES: LOAD BEARING WALLS

slide23

3. The Structure3.2. Structure Types3.2.1.MORE ABOUTPOST AND BEAM STRUCTURES: LOAD BEARING WALLS

slide46

3. The Structure3.3. Determination Of The Structural Form3.3.2.SELECTION OF THE GENERIC TYPE OF STRUCTURE

slide47

3. The Structure3.3. Determination Of The Structural Form3.3.3.SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL MATERIAL

references
References
  • Architecture and Engineering: An illustrated Teacher’s Manual on Why Buildings Stand Up, Mario Salvadori and Michael Temple, The New York Academy of Sciences, 1983.
  • Elements of Architecture, Pierre Von Meiss, ISBN 0-747-60014-7.
  • Form, Function & Design, Paul Jacques Grillo, ISBN 0-486-20182-1.
  • Structural Design for Architecture, Angus Macdonald, Architectural Press, Oxford 1997.