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IPCC methodologies and reporting principles

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  1. IPCC methodologies and reporting principles Kristin Rypdal, CICERO & IPCC author

  2. Outline • IPCC process and role • Reporting principles • Methods to estimate emissions from aviation and shipping

  3. IPCC work on inventory guidelines • Guidance on how to compile an inventory • Methods • Emission factors • Decision trees for selecting a method • Allocation principles • Reporting tables • On invitation from UNFCCC • Adopted by UNFCCC • Formal reporting guidelines and tables

  4. IPCC UNFCCC 1996 Guidelines Non-Annex I Annex I Kyoto Protocol Good practice Guidance (2004) ? 2006 Guidelines

  5. IPCC Guidelines • Authors nominated by the countries • Three rounds of expert and government review and revision • Accepted by IPCC plenary in 2006 • Adoption of overview chapter • Available for use at • http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/

  6. IPCC 2006 Guidelines • The series consists of five volumes: • Volume 1 General Guidance and Reporting • Volume 2 Energy • Volume 3 Industrial Processes and Product Use • Volume 4 Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use • Volume 5 Waste

  7. Aviation and maritime transport • Shipping • Ocean shipping • Inland shipping • Fishing • Military • Small craft • Aviation • Charter and scheduled aviation • Military • General aviation

  8. IPCC reporting principles • National inventories should include greenhouse gas emissions and removals taking place within national territory and offshore areas over which the country has jurisdiction • A list of ”special considerations”

  9. Reporting of aviation and shipping • Emissions from fuel for use in ships or aircraft engaged in international transport should not be included in national total, these emissions should be reported separately • Emissions from bunkers is reported as a so-called memo item by the country selling the fuel • Domestic/international split based on departure and arrival, not nationality of the airline

  10. Domestic vs. international Oslo Frankfurt Munich

  11. Domestic vs. international (2) • Simplification in the 2006 Guidelines of ”technical stops” • E.g. a ship going from Tromsø in Norway to Rotterdam, but stops outside Bergen (Norway) to fuel • Tromsø- Bergen segment would be national under 2006 Guidelines • International under Good practice guidance • An open question if fuel statistics matches the IPCC definition • In most countries makes not much difference in practice • Seeking general consistency between aviation and shipping

  12. Reporting of fishing • Reported separately from shipping • Separate category in 2006 Guidelines • Fishing includes emissions from fuel used in inland, coastal and deep sea fishing. Emissions resulting from fuel used in coastal and deep sea fishing should be allocated to the country delivering the fuel • No bunkers • Quality of statistics? Clarified

  13. Reporting of military • Is reported as ”non-specified” • Emissions from multilateral operations are reported as a memo item excluded from national total • Countries may report military bunkers as for shipping/aviation provided that they can apply the definition consistently • 2006 Guidelines New

  14. Methods (general) • Tier 1 • Simplest method • Activity data available to all countries • Tier 2 • Technology-specific emission factor • Tier 3 • More detailed or country-specific methods

  15. Tier 1 Accuracy Feasibility Tier 2 Tier 3

  16. What method is appropiate to use? • Using the key category concept • Step 1 Identify those sources that matter • Level (largest sources) • Trend (changing sources) • Step 2 Use a decision trees to select a method based on country-specific circumstances • Data availability • Importance • For non-key sources a Tier 1 method is appropriate • For key sources - use a higher tier method

  17. Methods: aviation • Tier 1: Fuel consumed * Emission factor • Landing-takeoff (LTO) and cruise estimated jointly • Tier 2: • LTO: No LTOs * emission factor • Cruise: Fuel (Total- LTO) * emission factor • By aircraft type • Requires fuel data with a domestic- international split!

  18. Methods: aviation (2) • Tier 3: Aircraft movement data • Origin and destination • Reference to EMEP/Corinair Guidebook • Full flight trajectory • Computer models • Guidance to activity data collection • Emission factors • Emission factor database – EMEP/Corinair

  19. Methods: shipping • Tier 1: Fuel consumed * Emission factor • National level • Tier 2: Fuel split by type and vehicle • Tier 1 and Tier 2 requires fuel data with domestic – international split! • Tier 3: Not specified • Makes reference to EMEP/Corinair Guidebook

  20. Methods: Fishing • As the shipping method • Tier 1 adequate • Tier 3 will differ and is not specified • Activity data • Fuel consumption data

  21. Methods: Military aviation and shipping • Same method as civil aviation at Tier 1 level • Tier 3 will differ • Fuel flow (kg/hour)

  22. What method is appropriate to use? • IPCC focuses on the ”Kyoto-gases” • CO2, CH4, N2O • NOx and SO2 are included, but not described in detail • Reference to EMEP/Corinair emission inventory guidebook • Choice of method does not matter much • CH4 and N2O of minor importance • Not much information • CO2 fuel dependent only • Only Tier 3 can provide independent activity data from fuel statistics

  23. EMEP/Corinair emission inventory Guidebook • Developed under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution • Hosted by EEA • Methods and emission factors for air pollutant inventories (NOx etc.) • Currently undergoing a major update and restructuring funded by the EC • Consistency with IPCC Guidelines • Complementary to the IPCC Guidelines • Review and finalization spring 2008 • Not main focus on Tier 3 methods

  24. EMEP/Corinair emission inventory Guidebook (2) • Shipping • Sailing routes • Vessel categories • Tabulated fuel and emission factors • Aviation • LTO data and average cruise distances per aircraft type • Generic aircrafts • Tabulated fuel consumption and emission factors • Tables generated from more sophisticated models

  25. EMEP/Corinair emission inventory Guidebook (3) • For both aviation and shipping method and fuel/emission factors need refinement • Can generate inventories independent of fuel data • Estimates for reporting • Verification • Can be compiled by countries without using sophisticated data and models

  26. Personal views of needs for improvements • “Easy” Tier 3 methods that can be applied to estimate fuel consumption • Need to match available statistics • Fuel consumption factors • Can build on sophisticated models • NOx emission factors • Aviation • LTO • Cruise • Shipping • Fishing • Activity data and emission factors • Military

  27. Conclusions • Methods and definitions have developed from 1996 Guidelines to 2006 Guidelines • Practical consequences are small • Simpler methods all rely on fuel statistics • Tier 3 methods to estimate fuel consumption need development • Definitions and methods are in general more challenging to apply to shipping compared to aviation