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Indus River Transboundary Water Resources Paula Kulis http://debrisson.free.fr/images/pakistan/indus.jpg River System http://www.sju.edu/cas/theology/Courses/2141/Topics/Indus/ http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/map/T028780A.gif Pakistan in 1947

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Indus river l.jpg

Indus River

Transboundary Water Resources

Paula Kulis

http://debrisson.free.fr/images/pakistan/indus.jpg


River system l.jpg
River System

http://www.sju.edu/cas/theology/Courses/2141/Topics/Indus/


Slide3 l.jpg

http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/map/T028780A.gifhttp://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/map/T028780A.gif


Pakistan in 1947 l.jpg
Pakistan http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/map/T028780A.gifin 1947

http://www.dams.org/docs/kbase/studies/drafts/pkscope.pdf


Slide5 l.jpg

http://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htmhttp://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm


Within the british empire l.jpg
Within the British Empirehttp://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm

  • Canals link regions in the basin together

    • 23 barrages

    • 45 canals

  • Overarching Authority to settle disputes

  • Modern-day Pakistan is major beneficiary of development

    • Historic use


Timeline part i l.jpg
Timeline Part Ihttp://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm

  • 1930s: British Empire begins allowing more independence in states

    • Conflict

  • 1947: India and Pakistan become independent states

    • Pakistan has historic use

    • India is upper riparian

    • Also have conflict over Kashmir

    • Punjab

    • Interim Agreement


Timeline part ii l.jpg
Timeline Part IIhttp://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm

  • 1948: India cuts off flow to Pakistan through 2 canals

    • Crops fail

    • Tension on resumption of flow

  • 1951: World Bank steps in

    • Negotiations take almost 10 years


1960 indus waters treaty l.jpg
1960: Indus Waters Treatyhttp://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm

  • Pakistan wants separation of water supplies

  • India has control over the eastern rivers

    • Ravi, Sutlej, Beas

  • Pakistan has control over the western rivers

    • Indus, Chenab, Jhelum


1960 indus waters treaty10 l.jpg
1960: Indus Waters Treatyhttp://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm

  • WB helps fund projects in Pakistan to compensate water loss (IBP)

    • Tarbela and Mangla Dams

  • Tarbela was the largest earth-filled dam at the time

  • 10 year transition period

  • Commission to meet every year


Slide11 l.jpg

www.dams.org/images/ maps/map_tarbela_bw.htm http://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm


Benefits for pakistan l.jpg
Benefits for Pakistanhttp://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm

  • More water

  • Flood attenuation

  • More agricultural land

  • Hydropower

  • More independence from India


Slide13 l.jpg

http://www.dams.org/docs/kbase/studies/drafts/pkscope.pdfhttp://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm


Problems with the ibp l.jpg
Problems With the IBPhttp://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm

  • Water logging

    • Water table up to 1 m below surface in some places

  • Salinity

  • Sedimentation

    • Impacts hydropower

  • Resettlement

  • Environment


Problems with the treaty l.jpg
Problems with the Treatyhttp://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm

  • Old treaty

    • population has changed water needs

    • India is depleting aquifers

    • Urbanization has increased municipal demands

  • Left India as the upper Riparian to Pakistan

  • Total separation of water resources

    • (is this really a “problem”?)


Recent developments l.jpg
Recent Developmentshttp://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm

  • India is planning the Baglihar Hydropower Project on the Chenab River

    • Pakistan claims a violation of the Treaty

    • WB stepping in again

    • Other previous development projects

  • India has stopped attending annual Commission meetings

  • Kashmir


Questions l.jpg
Questions!http://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm

  • Do you think that the treaty is a sustainable one, or is it out-dated?

  • What important lessons can be learned from the Tarbela Dam project?

  • Would it be beneficial for Pakistan and India to integrate their water systems? Is it possible without conflict?

http://ai.stanford.edu/~latombe/mountain/photo/muztaghata.html


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