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Indus River Transboundary Water Resources Paula Kulis http://debrisson.free.fr/images/pakistan/indus.jpg River System http://www.sju.edu/cas/theology/Courses/2141/Topics/Indus/ http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/map/T028780A.gif Pakistan in 1947

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indus river

Indus River

Transboundary Water Resources

Paula Kulis

http://debrisson.free.fr/images/pakistan/indus.jpg

river system
River System

http://www.sju.edu/cas/theology/Courses/2141/Topics/Indus/

slide3

http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/map/T028780A.gifhttp://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/map/T028780A.gif

pakistan in 1947
Pakistan in 1947

http://www.dams.org/docs/kbase/studies/drafts/pkscope.pdf

slide5

http://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htmhttp://165.29.91.7/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/India.htm

within the british empire
Within the British Empire
  • Canals link regions in the basin together
    • 23 barrages
    • 45 canals
  • Overarching Authority to settle disputes
  • Modern-day Pakistan is major beneficiary of development
    • Historic use
timeline part i
Timeline Part I
  • 1930s: British Empire begins allowing more independence in states
    • Conflict
  • 1947: India and Pakistan become independent states
    • Pakistan has historic use
    • India is upper riparian
    • Also have conflict over Kashmir
    • Punjab
    • Interim Agreement
timeline part ii
Timeline Part II
  • 1948: India cuts off flow to Pakistan through 2 canals
    • Crops fail
    • Tension on resumption of flow
  • 1951: World Bank steps in
    • Negotiations take almost 10 years
1960 indus waters treaty
1960: Indus Waters Treaty
  • Pakistan wants separation of water supplies
  • India has control over the eastern rivers
    • Ravi, Sutlej, Beas
  • Pakistan has control over the western rivers
    • Indus, Chenab, Jhelum
1960 indus waters treaty10
1960: Indus Waters Treaty
  • WB helps fund projects in Pakistan to compensate water loss (IBP)
    • Tarbela and Mangla Dams
  • Tarbela was the largest earth-filled dam at the time
  • 10 year transition period
  • Commission to meet every year
benefits for pakistan
Benefits for Pakistan
  • More water
  • Flood attenuation
  • More agricultural land
  • Hydropower
  • More independence from India
problems with the ibp
Problems With the IBP
  • Water logging
    • Water table up to 1 m below surface in some places
  • Salinity
  • Sedimentation
    • Impacts hydropower
  • Resettlement
  • Environment
problems with the treaty
Problems with the Treaty
  • Old treaty
    • population has changed water needs
    • India is depleting aquifers
    • Urbanization has increased municipal demands
  • Left India as the upper Riparian to Pakistan
  • Total separation of water resources
    • (is this really a “problem”?)
recent developments
Recent Developments
  • India is planning the Baglihar Hydropower Project on the Chenab River
    • Pakistan claims a violation of the Treaty
    • WB stepping in again
    • Other previous development projects
  • India has stopped attending annual Commission meetings
  • Kashmir
questions
Questions!
  • Do you think that the treaty is a sustainable one, or is it out-dated?
  • What important lessons can be learned from the Tarbela Dam project?
  • Would it be beneficial for Pakistan and India to integrate their water systems? Is it possible without conflict?

http://ai.stanford.edu/~latombe/mountain/photo/muztaghata.html