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How would you Define Machismo?. How do you know?. What is the difference between Machismo and Latino Masculinity?. Latino Masculinities. Jime Salcedo, M.S. Doctoral Candidate University of La Verne. Traditional Masculinity .

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latino masculinities
Latino Masculinities

Jime Salcedo, M.S.

Doctoral Candidate

University of La Verne

traditional masculinity
Traditional Masculinity
  • Assertiveness; concerns about and obsession with achieving status, power, sexual prowess, and control at any cost; individualism; toughness, and competition Englar-Carlson, 2006; Thorn & Gilbert, 1998; Torres, Solberg, & Calstrom, 2002)
  • When these characteristics are applied to European American males, entertainers, athletes, or other celebrities, positive connotations such as strength, virility, and sex appeal are implied (Hardin, 2002; Mirande, 1979)
  • However, when applied to Latino men, these same behavioral characteristics are described with negative connotations
machismo
Machismo
  • Machismo has been characterized by sexual prowess, drunkenness and infidelity (Mirande, 1979), and punitive child-rearing practices (Deyoung & Zigler, 1994)
  • It has also included depictions of aggressiveness, dominant and sexualized behavior, especially relating to the control of women (Abalos, 2004; Casas, et al., 1994; Cervantes, 2006; Hardin, 2002; Kulis, Marsiglia & Hurdle, 2003; Mirande, 1979)
  • Casas et al. (1994) recognized that these traits are not only present in Latino culture but are universal across cultures
latino cultural values
Latino Cultural Values
  • Cultural values such as familismo, personalismo and respeto are identified as key concepts to consider (Falicov, 1998)
  • Values influence Latino’s worldviews
  • Familismo is rooted in the collectivist tradition of Latino America
  • Personalismo places an importance on building and maintaining interpersonal relationships
  • Respeto places value on respecting other’s beliefs and interpersonal conflict is limited or avoided
latino masculinity
Latino Masculinity
  • Latino scholars have worked to correct the ethnocentric perspective of machismo and to more accurately include a male gender socialization process and view of masculinity
  • Machismo within its original meaning requires men to be nurturing, hard working, brave, proud, emotionally connected
  • Interested in the welfare and honor of their loved ones, including providing for, protecting, and defending their families and less fortunate members of society (Arciniega, Anderson, Tovar-Blank & Tracey, 2008; Miranda, 1997)
caballerismo
Caballerismo
  • Maintaining honor, dignity and respect both within the family and in the community, along with caretaking and providing for his family, also appear to be central in conceptualizing of Caballersismo (Arciniega, Anderson, Tovar-Blank & Tracey, 2008)
  • These more positive qualities also must be highlighted and couched within the Latino values constructs of familialismo, respeto, personalismo, cultural pride, dignidad, etc. (Falicov, 1998; Torres, 1998; Torres, et al., 2002)
latino masculinities10
Latino Masculinities
  • The socialization of masculinity ideology happens through a multigenerational transmission of gender roles and characteristics that are influenced by the culture of origin (Thorn & Gilbert, 1998)
  • Recognizing there is more than one type of masculinity, and that there is significant within group diversity in Latino culture
  • Integration of both concepts of Machismo and Caballerismo
research on latino masculinities
Research on Latino Masculinities
  • Empirical research on Latinos and masculinity is still scant
  • A rich theoretical foundation exists in conceptualizing the multidimensional complexities of Latino men and masculinities
  • Traditional conceptions of machismo in studies of Latinos have become too simplistic and overshadow the positive qualities of Latino men (Torres, 1998; Kulis, et al., 2003)
references
References
  • Abreu, J.M., Goodyear, R.K., Campos, A., & Newcomb, M.D. (2002). Ethnic belongingness and traditional masculinity ideology among African Americans, European Americans and Latinos. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 1, 75-86.
  • Arciniega, G.M., Anderson, T.C., Tovar-Blank, Z.G., & Tracey, J.G. (2008). Toward a fuller conception of Machismo: Development of a Traditional

Machismo and Caballerismo Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55, 19-33.

  • Casas, J.M. & Vasquez, M.J.T. (1989). Counseling the Hispanic client: A theoretical and applied perspective. In Pederson, P.B., Draguns, J.G., Lonner, W.J. & Trimble, J.E. (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (3rd Ed) (pp. 153-175). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Casas, J.M., Wagenheim, B.R., Banchero, R., & Mendoza-Romero, J. (1994). Hispanic Masculinity: Myth or psychological schema meriting clinical consideration. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 16, 315-331.
  • Cervantes, J.M. (2006). A new understanding of the macho male image: Exploration of the Mexican American Man. In Englar-Carlson, M., & Stevens, M.A. (Eds.) In the room with men: A casebook of therapeutic Change (pgs. 197-224). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Falicov, C.J. (1998). Latino Families in Therapy: A Guide to Multicultural Practice. New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Mirandé, A. (1979). A reinterpretation of male dominance in the Chicano family. The Family Coordinator, October, 473-479.
  • Pleitez, A.I. (2006). Acculturation, mental health ideology, and willingness to seek mental health services among Mexican American men. (Doctoral dissertation, University of La Verne, 2006). Dissertation Abstracts International, 66, 4496.
  • Ramirez, R.L. (1993). What it means to be a man: Reflections on Puerto Rican masculinity. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
  • Torres, J. B. (1998). Masculinity and gender roles among Puerto Rican men: A dilemma for Puerto Rican men’s personal identity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68, 16–26.
  • Torres, J.B., Solberg, V.S.H. & Calstrom, A.H. (2002). The myth of sameness among Latino men and their machismo. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72, 163-181.
  • Valdés, L.F., Barón, A. & Ponce, F.Q. (1987). Counseling Hispanic men. InScher, M., Stevens, M., Good, G.E. & Eichenfield, G.A. (Eds.). Handbook of counseling & therapy with men (pgs. 203-217). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Velasquez, R.J. & Burton, M.P. (2004). Psychotherapy of Chicano men. In Velasquez, R.J., Arrellano, L.M. & McNeill, B.W. (Eds.) The Handbook of Chicano/a Psychology and Mental Health (pgs. 177-192). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
  • Viveros-Vigoya, M. (2001). Contemporary Latin American perspectives on masculinity. Men and Masculinities, 3, 237-260.
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Thank You!

Jime.salcedo@laverne.edu