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Historic Roots of Terrorism. An exploration of early terrorism and of the historic roots of modern terrorism. Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University at Buffalo www.PsychologyofTerrorism.com. Terrorism is not new

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Historic Roots of Terrorism


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    1. Historic Roots of Terrorism An exploration of early terrorism and of the historic roots of modern terrorism Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D.Department of PsychologyUniversity at Buffalowww.PsychologyofTerrorism.com

    2. Terrorism is not new • it been used for to affect political, social, economic, and religious change for centuries • The causes of modern conflicts leading to terrorism are not new • they have developed over decades and in many cases over centuries Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    3. Presentation briefly examines • terrorism from a historical perspective • historic basis of some contemporary terrorist organizations • examples of historically significant North American terrorist organizations Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    4. Early History • Zealots (2nd C B.C. - 1st C A.D.) • Jewish fighters resisting Roman occupation, most notably 66-73 A.D. • used terrorist attacks against Romans and against Jews conforming to Roman subjugation • last Zealot garrison at Masada was taken by the Romans with 900 defenders committing mass suicide Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    5. More Early History • Assassins (1200 - 1400+ CE) • Arabic for “user of hashish” • secret order of the Ismaili sect of Shiites also called “Hashshashin” • spread quickly through Syria & Persia, eventually throughout the Moslem world • some surviving groups are reputed to exist today in Northern Syria Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    6. Terrorism in the Name of God • Early Christians • eradication of “paganism” • schisms—especially 1054 & the Reformation • Catholic Church • religious inquisition as terrorism—suppression of dissonant views • persecution of religious minorities Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    7. Huguenots • French Protestants (also called the Reformed Church of France) • Considered heretics by the Roman Catholic Church • Challenged papal authority and Roman Catholic dogma • Many were nobles who were (too) active in French politics Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    8. The Huguenot Heresy • Criticized Roman Catholic rituals praying to saints images church hierarchy • Promoted Calvinist belief that ‘Christian life’ is to be lived not just practiced by performing rituals, prayers, and pilgrimages Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    9. Huguenots in Catholic France • Persecuted in Catholic France • Edict of Orleans (1561—declared tolerance) • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572) • 8,000-10,000 killed in Paris over two days • 50,000-70,000 killed during the following weeks in other French cities • Edict of Nantes (1598—declared tolerance) • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) • mass exodus from France including from the Alsace region (Huguenot Diaspora) • Simon Bossard emigrated to Jamestown (1700) Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    10. Papal Celebration of the Huguenot Massacre • Pope Gregory XIII celebrated the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre(1572) by issuing a special medal to commemorate the slaughter of the Huguenots • The medal shows God’s angels smiting the Huguenots, inscribed [translation] “Slaughter of the Huguenots” Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    11. Final Reconciliation with Catholic France • Edit of Tolerance (1787) • Recognized as full citizens after the French Revolution (1789) • But France was ‘saved’ from the Protestant Reformation • Protestant population decreased from 15 to 20% during the 17th Century to 1.7% today • Muslims (6.9%) constitute a larger proportion of the population of modern France (Jews, 1.3%) Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    12. More Terrorism in the Name of God • Fight over the “Holy Land” • Christian Crusades • Islamic Jihad Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    13. Crusades to Reclaim the Holy Land • First Crusade, 1095–99 • Second Crusade, 1147–49 • Third Crusade, 1189–92 • Fourth Crusade, 1202–1204 • Children’s Crusade, 1212 • Fifth Crusade, 1217–21 • Sixth Crusade, 1228–29 • Seventh Crusade, 1248–54 • Eight Crusade, 1270 • Ninth Crusade, 1271–72 Crusader States, c. 1100 Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    14. Irony of Contemporary Religious Conflict • Jews, Christians, and Moslems • descended from a common Father • “People of The Book” • Old Testament—Jews, Christians, Moslems • New Testament—Christians, Moslems • Koran—Moslems • struggled against • polytheism • social injustice Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    15. Historical Basis of Some Current Conflicts • Chechnya (Russian Federation) • Basque Separatists (Spain) • Sudan’s Darfur region • Northern Ireland • Middle East Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    16. Contrasting Conflicts • Northern Ireland • attacks limited to British Isles • little impact worldwide • Arab-Israeli Conflict • attacks extended outside of region • major impact worldwide • anti-American sentiment • potential global economic disruption Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    17. Early Ireland • Five Gaelic kingdoms • St. Patrick (432 C.E.) • Irish centers of enlightenment during the European dark ages • Norse raids (795-1014 C.E.) • Pope awarded Ireland to the English Crown (1155/1172) Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    18. The British Conquest • English invasion (1171) • Plantation of Ulster (17th Century) • 1641 Rebellion suppressed by Oliver Cromwell (1649) • William of Orange (1690) • Act of Union (1801) • Genocide through famine (1840s) (population: 1846, 8.3 million; today, 5.2 million) Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    19. Irish Independence • Easter Rebellion (1916) • Anglo-Irish War (1919-1921) • Irish Free State (1922) • dominion with 6 northern counties remaining part of United Kingdom • Irish Civil War (1922-1923) • Republic of Ireland (1949) • Admitted to UN (1955) Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    20. The Solution Partitioning Ireland into the Irish Free State and the Northern Counties which remain part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    21. Northern Ireland • Limited independence 1921-1972 • dominated by the Unionist party • Catholics excluded from government • Home rule suspended 1972 • Conflict continues between Unionists (Protestant) majority and Republicans (Catholic) minority Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    22. British Home Office Proscribed Irish Organizations • Continuity Army Council • Cumann na mBan • Fianna na hEireann • Irish National Liberation Army • Irish People's Liberation Organisation • Irish Republican Army • Loyalist Volunteer Force • Orange Volunteers • Red Hand Commando • Red Hand Defenders • Saor Eire • Ulster Defence Association • Ulster Freedom Fighters • Ulster Volunteer Force Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    23. The Disputed Holy Land • Roman Era (6 C.E.) • Jewish Diaspora (135 C.E.) • Christian Era (c. 391 - 636 C.E.) • Arab Conquest/Ottoman Empire • Post World War I (1918) • Arab nationalism • Zionism • Post World War II (1945) Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    24. Formation of Israel • Zionist movement (19th Century) • Immigration to the Holy Land • 19th through early 20th Century • pre World War II (c. 1930s) • post World War II • Independence declared (1948) • First Arab-Israeli War (1948) • Admitted to UN (1949) Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    25. Jewish Terrorist Groups • Several terrorist groups, including • Irgun Tsvai-Leumi (“Military-National Organization”) or Etzel • Lehi or Lohamei Herut Israel ("Fighters for the Freedom of Israel") or Stern gang • Attacked British & Arab interests "Neither Jewish morality nor Jewish tradition can negate the use of terror as a means of battle.” Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    26. Terrorism in the Israeli Fight for Independence • Haifa market bombing (1939) • Lord Moyne assassination (British government minister): advocated limiting Jewish immigration to Palestine (1944) • King David Hotel bombing (1946) • British Embassy bombing, Rome (1946) • Count Folke Bernadotteassassination (UN mediator): supported Arab ‘rights’ (1948) • Deir Yassin massacre: reprisal (1948) Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    27. The ProposalThe Reality UN Partition Plan for Palestine (1947) Map of Israel Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    28. Arab Response • Rejected UN proposal • “Drive the Jews back into the sea!” • Israel immediately attacked by Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon • Palestinian Exodus (Nakba: “tragedy”) • Sustained terrorist campaign against Israel • Intermittent wars with Israel Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    29. Arab-Israeli Wars • First Arab-Israeli war (1948) • Other wars • 1956 (Suez War) • 1967 (Six Day War) • 1970 (War of Attrition) • 1973 (Yom Kippur War) • 1982 (Lebanon War) • Numerous skirmishes & raids Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    30. Palestine Population Shifts with Israeli Independence Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    31. Events Related to Shifting Population in Palestine Important Events 1800s Rise of Zionism 1917 Balfour Declaration 1930s Rise in European anti-Semitism 1948 Israeli Independence Arab Nakba 1991 Dissolution of the Soviet Union Note: Arab population statistics include 8-10% Christians. Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    32. Progress Towards Peaceful Resolution • Recognition of the right for the state of Israel to exist • Anwar Sadat (1977) • Yassar Arafat (1989) • Recognition of the right for an independent Palestinian state • Israeli withdrawal from some occupied lands Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    33. North American Terrorist Groups • SDS Weatherman • Symbionese Liberation Army • FLQ (Quebec) • Ku Klux Klan (KKK) • The New Anarchists Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    34. SDS Weathermen • Active 1969-1976 • More militant faction of the SDS • Advocated the overthrow of the U.S. government and capitalism • Organized bombings, jailbreaks, and riots (with few casualties) • Members diffused back into society escaping prosecution Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    35. Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) • Active 1973-1975 • 13-member group committed two murders and several bank robberies • Kidnapped publishing heiress Patty Hearst (1974-1975) • Criminal terror masquerading as sociopolitical terrorism? Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    36. Patty Hearst as “Tania”(Extreme Stockholm Syndrome?) • After her kidnapping and forced indoctrination, she became an active member of the SLA • iconic photograph with assault rifle while robbing a bank (1974) • captured in 1975 • released from prison in 1979 with sentence commuted by President Carter; pardoned by President Clinton (2001) Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    37. FLQ (Québec) • Front de Libération du Québec (Quebec Liberation Front) • Active 1963-1970 • Organized bombings, bank robberies, and kidnappings targets included English owned businesses, banks, McGill University, and homes of prominent anglophones in the wealthy Westmount area of Montréal; murdered Quebec Vice-Premier and Minister of Labour Pierre Laporte Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    38. Response to FLQ • Climax reached during the October Crises (1970) when the Canadian government evoked the War Measures Act resulting in troops and tanks in downtown Montréal and hundreds of people arrested and detained without charge • After 1970 the separatist movement became less violent and more political, electing the Parti Québécois (PQ) in 1976 • Canadian government claims its strong response deterred further political violence Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    39. Troops in Downtown Montréal (1970) • A few terrorists or a provincial insurrection? • The Canadian government sent a strong message to Québec separatists • The separatist movement had widespread popular support, but nobody knows the actual number of terrorists • Québec independence remains a prominent issue today Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    40. Ku Klux Klan (KKK) • First KKK: 1866-1869 (1880) • Second KKK: 1915-1944 • Current KKKs: various competing factions • American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan • Imperial Klans of America • Knights of the White Kamelia Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    41. KKK Orientation • Considered a white-supremacist organization, but also excludes Jews, Catholics, and other non-Protestant whites • Has used terrorist tactics throughout itshistory, often instigating actions rather than acting as the official KKK Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    42. KKK Self-Perception • ‘Protector of the White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) way of life’ exemplified by the romantic, pre-Civil War American South • Christian • Patriotic • Fraternal • protector of weak widow women Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    43. A “Knightly” Meeting? • Ghosts of the Confederate Army or Teutonic Knights, the effect is largely the same—if they didn’t have guns under those costumes, it would be comedic! Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    44. The First KKK (1866-1880) • Anti-reconstruction, attacking • freed slaves exercising their new rights enforced by Federal troops in the South • white Northern liberals & ‘carpet baggers’ • Undermined by • disbanding (1869) by its founder (Nathan Bedford Forrest) because it became too violent • The Klan Act and The Enforcement Act (1871) (probably American’s first antiterrorist acts) Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    45. The Second KKK(1915-1944) • Founded 1915 (‘Patriotic Movement’) • Popularity peaked around 1922 with over 4 million members including many in Northern States • Added socialists and communists to its list of undesirables and targets • Lost popularity by the 1930s • Officially disbanded in 1944 Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    46. The Little KKKs(1960s-present) • Popularity of white-supremacist groups resurfaced with the civil rights movement during the early 1960s and continues subdued today • Currently three KKK factions exist • little popularity or power • U.S. Hate-Crime laws & aggressive law enforcement have proved effective in minimizing their impact on American society Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    47. The “Klan” Today Once America's preeminent terrorist organization, the Ku Klux Klan today is a fragmented and amorphous collection of independent groups and individuals, constantly squabbling over diminishing memberships and limited resources. Passed over by most young white supremacists, who consider Klansmen to be ineffectual and faintly ridiculous old-timers, the group presents far less of a threat to public order than at any time in the past century. Despite its dwindling influence, however, the Klan continues to be a specter that haunts the American psyche and the sight of a flaming cross can still inspire both horror and terror. Anti-Defamation League (www.ADL.org) Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    48. The New Anarchists —One-Man Terrorist Cells? • Unabomber (1978-1996) • Oklahoma City bombing (1995) Psychopathology or disorganized terrorist movement? Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    49. Unabomber (1978-1996) • Theodore John Kaczynski (b. 1942) • UC-Berkeley professor (Ph.D., mathematics) • mail bombs killed 3, injured 29 • 6-year break in bombings (1987-1993) • “Unabomber Manifesto” (1995)—”Industrial Society and Its Future”reluctantly published by theNew York Times and the Washington Post • arrested Lincoln, Montana, April 3, 1996 • pleaded guilty January 22, 1998 • sentenced to life in prisonwithout possibility of parole Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

    50. Oklahoma City Bombing (1995) • Timothy McVeigh (1968-2001) • decorated Gulf War veteran • 5,000 lb. truck bomb: 168 killed including 19 children in a day care center, over 800 injured • destroyed Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building • arrested within an hour after attack • convicted June 2, 1997 • executed June 11, 2001 • others convicted • Terry Nichols sentenced to life in prison (manslaughter) • Michael Fortier sentenced to12 years in prison (failure to warn) Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth