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Historic Roots of Terrorism. An exploration of early terrorism and of the historic roots of modern terrorism. Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University at Buffalo www.PsychologyofTerrorism.com. Terrorism is not new

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historic roots of terrorism

Historic Roots of Terrorism

An exploration of early terrorism and of the historic roots of modern terrorism

Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D.Department of PsychologyUniversity at Buffalowww.PsychologyofTerrorism.com

slide2
Terrorism is not new
    • it been used for to affect political, social, economic, and religious change for centuries
  • The causes of modern conflicts leading to terrorism are not new
    • they have developed over decades and in many cases over centuries

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

slide3
Presentation briefly examines
    • terrorism from a historical perspective
    • historic basis of some contemporary terrorist organizations
    • examples of historically significant North American terrorist organizations

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

early history
Early History
  • Zealots (2nd C B.C. - 1st C A.D.)
    • Jewish fighters resisting Roman occupation, most notably 66-73 A.D.
    • used terrorist attacks against Romans and against Jews conforming to Roman subjugation
    • last Zealot garrison at Masada was taken by the Romans with 900 defenders committing mass suicide

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

more early history
More Early History
  • Assassins (1200 - 1400+ CE)
    • Arabic for “user of hashish”
    • secret order of the Ismaili sect of Shiites also called “Hashshashin”
    • spread quickly through Syria & Persia, eventually throughout the Moslem world
    • some surviving groups are reputed to exist today in Northern Syria

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

terrorism in the name of god
Terrorism in the Name of God
  • Early Christians
    • eradication of “paganism”
    • schisms—especially 1054 & the Reformation
  • Catholic Church
    • religious inquisition as terrorism—suppression of dissonant views
    • persecution of religious minorities

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

huguenots
Huguenots
  • French Protestants (also called the Reformed Church of France)
  • Considered heretics by the Roman Catholic Church
  • Challenged papal authority and Roman Catholic dogma
  • Many were nobles who were (too) active in French politics

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

the huguenot heresy
The Huguenot Heresy
  • Criticized Roman Catholic

rituals praying to saints

images church hierarchy

  • Promoted Calvinist belief that ‘Christian life’ is to be lived not just practiced by performing rituals, prayers, and pilgrimages

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

huguenots in catholic france
Huguenots in Catholic France
  • Persecuted in Catholic France
    • Edict of Orleans (1561—declared tolerance)
    • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572)
      • 8,000-10,000 killed in Paris over two days
      • 50,000-70,000 killed during the following weeks in other French cities
    • Edict of Nantes (1598—declared tolerance)
    • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685)
      • mass exodus from France including from the Alsace region (Huguenot Diaspora)
      • Simon Bossard emigrated to Jamestown (1700)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

papal celebration of the huguenot massacre
Papal Celebration of the Huguenot Massacre
  • Pope Gregory XIII celebrated the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre(1572) by issuing a special medal to commemorate the slaughter of the Huguenots
  • The medal shows God’s angels smiting the Huguenots, inscribed [translation] “Slaughter of the Huguenots”

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

final reconciliation with catholic france
Final Reconciliation with Catholic France
  • Edit of Tolerance (1787)
  • Recognized as full citizens after the French Revolution (1789)
  • But France was ‘saved’ from the Protestant Reformation
    • Protestant population decreased from 15 to 20% during the 17th Century to 1.7% today
    • Muslims (6.9%) constitute a larger proportion of the population of modern France (Jews, 1.3%)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

more terrorism in the name of god
More Terrorism in the Name of God
  • Fight over the “Holy Land”
    • Christian Crusades
    • Islamic Jihad

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

crusades to reclaim the holy land
Crusades to Reclaim the Holy Land
  • First Crusade, 1095–99
  • Second Crusade, 1147–49
  • Third Crusade, 1189–92
  • Fourth Crusade, 1202–1204
  • Children’s Crusade, 1212
  • Fifth Crusade, 1217–21
  • Sixth Crusade, 1228–29
  • Seventh Crusade, 1248–54
  • Eight Crusade, 1270
  • Ninth Crusade, 1271–72

Crusader States, c. 1100

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

irony of contemporary religious conflict
Irony of Contemporary Religious Conflict
  • Jews, Christians, and Moslems
    • descended from a common Father
    • “People of The Book”
      • Old Testament—Jews, Christians, Moslems
      • New Testament—Christians, Moslems
      • Koran—Moslems
    • struggled against
      • polytheism
      • social injustice

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

historical basis of some current conflicts
Historical Basis of Some Current Conflicts
  • Chechnya (Russian Federation)
  • Basque Separatists (Spain)
  • Sudan’s Darfur region
  • Northern Ireland
  • Middle East

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

contrasting conflicts
Contrasting Conflicts
  • Northern Ireland
    • attacks limited to British Isles
    • little impact worldwide
  • Arab-Israeli Conflict
    • attacks extended outside of region
    • major impact worldwide
      • anti-American sentiment
      • potential global economic disruption

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

early ireland
Early Ireland
  • Five Gaelic kingdoms
  • St. Patrick (432 C.E.)
  • Irish centers of enlightenment during the European dark ages
  • Norse raids (795-1014 C.E.)
  • Pope awarded Ireland to the English Crown (1155/1172)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

the british conquest
The British Conquest
  • English invasion (1171)
  • Plantation of Ulster (17th Century)
  • 1641 Rebellion suppressed by Oliver Cromwell (1649)
  • William of Orange (1690)
  • Act of Union (1801)
  • Genocide through famine (1840s)

(population: 1846, 8.3 million; today, 5.2 million)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

irish independence
Irish Independence
  • Easter Rebellion (1916)
  • Anglo-Irish War (1919-1921)
  • Irish Free State (1922)
    • dominion with 6 northern counties remaining part of United Kingdom
    • Irish Civil War (1922-1923)
  • Republic of Ireland (1949)
  • Admitted to UN (1955)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

the solution
The Solution

Partitioning Ireland into the Irish Free State and the Northern Counties which remain part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

northern ireland
Northern Ireland
  • Limited independence 1921-1972
    • dominated by the Unionist party
    • Catholics excluded from government
  • Home rule suspended 1972
  • Conflict continues between Unionists (Protestant) majority and Republicans (Catholic) minority

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

british home office proscribed irish organizations
British Home Office Proscribed Irish Organizations
  • Continuity Army Council
  • Cumann na mBan
  • Fianna na hEireann
  • Irish National Liberation Army
  • Irish People's Liberation Organisation
  • Irish Republican Army
  • Loyalist Volunteer Force
  • Orange Volunteers
  • Red Hand Commando
  • Red Hand Defenders
  • Saor Eire
  • Ulster Defence Association
  • Ulster Freedom Fighters
  • Ulster Volunteer Force

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

the disputed holy land
The Disputed Holy Land
  • Roman Era (6 C.E.)
    • Jewish Diaspora (135 C.E.)
  • Christian Era (c. 391 - 636 C.E.)
  • Arab Conquest/Ottoman Empire
  • Post World War I (1918)
    • Arab nationalism
    • Zionism
  • Post World War II (1945)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

formation of israel
Formation of Israel
  • Zionist movement (19th Century)
  • Immigration to the Holy Land
    • 19th through early 20th Century
    • pre World War II (c. 1930s)
    • post World War II
  • Independence declared (1948)
  • First Arab-Israeli War (1948)
  • Admitted to UN (1949)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

jewish terrorist groups
Jewish Terrorist Groups
  • Several terrorist groups, including
    • Irgun Tsvai-Leumi (“Military-National Organization”) or Etzel
    • Lehi or Lohamei Herut Israel ("Fighters for the Freedom of Israel") or Stern gang
  • Attacked British & Arab interests

"Neither Jewish morality nor Jewish tradition can negate the use of terror as a means of battle.”

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

terrorism in the israeli fight for independence
Terrorism in the Israeli Fight for Independence
  • Haifa market bombing (1939)
  • Lord Moyne assassination (British government minister): advocated limiting Jewish immigration to Palestine (1944)
  • King David Hotel bombing (1946)
  • British Embassy bombing, Rome (1946)
  • Count Folke Bernadotteassassination (UN mediator): supported Arab ‘rights’ (1948)
  • Deir Yassin massacre: reprisal (1948)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

the proposal the reality
The ProposalThe Reality

UN Partition Plan for Palestine (1947)

Map of Israel

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

arab response
Arab Response
  • Rejected UN proposal
    • “Drive the Jews back into the sea!”
    • Israel immediately attacked by Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon
    • Palestinian Exodus (Nakba: “tragedy”)
  • Sustained terrorist campaign against Israel
  • Intermittent wars with Israel

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

arab israeli wars
Arab-Israeli Wars
  • First Arab-Israeli war (1948)
  • Other wars
    • 1956 (Suez War)
    • 1967 (Six Day War)
    • 1970 (War of Attrition)
    • 1973 (Yom Kippur War)
    • 1982 (Lebanon War)
  • Numerous skirmishes & raids

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

palestine population shifts with israeli independence
Palestine Population Shifts with Israeli Independence

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

events related to shifting population in palestine
Events Related to Shifting Population in Palestine

Important Events

1800s Rise of Zionism

1917 Balfour Declaration

1930s Rise in European anti-Semitism

1948 Israeli Independence Arab Nakba

1991 Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Note: Arab population statistics include 8-10% Christians.

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

progress towards peaceful resolution
Progress Towards Peaceful Resolution
  • Recognition of the right for the state of Israel to exist
    • Anwar Sadat (1977)
    • Yassar Arafat (1989)
  • Recognition of the right for an independent Palestinian state
  • Israeli withdrawal from some occupied lands

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

north american terrorist groups
North American Terrorist Groups
  • SDS Weatherman
  • Symbionese Liberation Army
  • FLQ (Quebec)
  • Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
  • The New Anarchists

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

sds weathermen
SDS Weathermen
  • Active 1969-1976
  • More militant faction of the SDS
  • Advocated the overthrow of the U.S. government and capitalism
  • Organized bombings, jailbreaks, and riots (with few casualties)
  • Members diffused back into society escaping prosecution

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

symbionese liberation army sla
Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA)
  • Active 1973-1975
  • 13-member group committed two murders and several bank robberies
  • Kidnapped publishing heiress Patty Hearst (1974-1975)
  • Criminal terror masquerading as sociopolitical terrorism?

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

patty hearst as tania extreme stockholm syndrome
Patty Hearst as “Tania”(Extreme Stockholm Syndrome?)
  • After her kidnapping and forced indoctrination, she became an active member of the SLA
  • iconic photograph with assault rifle while robbing a bank (1974)
  • captured in 1975
  • released from prison in 1979 with sentence commuted by President Carter; pardoned by President Clinton (2001)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

flq qu bec
FLQ (Québec)
  • Front de Libération du Québec (Quebec Liberation Front)
  • Active 1963-1970
  • Organized bombings, bank robberies, and kidnappings

targets included English owned businesses, banks, McGill University, and homes of prominent anglophones in the wealthy Westmount area of Montréal; murdered Quebec Vice-Premier and Minister of Labour Pierre Laporte

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

response to flq
Response to FLQ
  • Climax reached during the October Crises (1970) when the Canadian government evoked the War Measures Act resulting in troops and tanks in downtown Montréal and hundreds of people arrested and detained without charge
  • After 1970 the separatist movement became less violent and more political, electing the Parti Québécois (PQ) in 1976
  • Canadian government claims its strong response deterred further political violence

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

troops in downtown montr al 1970
Troops in Downtown Montréal (1970)
  • A few terrorists or a provincial insurrection?
  • The Canadian government sent a strong message to Québec separatists
  • The separatist movement had widespread popular support, but nobody knows the actual number of terrorists
  • Québec independence remains a prominent issue today

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

ku klux klan kkk
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
  • First KKK: 1866-1869 (1880)
  • Second KKK: 1915-1944
  • Current KKKs: various competing factions
    • American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
    • Imperial Klans of America
    • Knights of the White Kamelia

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

kkk orientation
KKK Orientation
  • Considered a white-supremacist organization, but also excludes

Jews, Catholics, and other non-Protestant whites

  • Has used terrorist tactics throughout itshistory, often instigating actions rather than acting as the official KKK

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

kkk self perception
KKK Self-Perception
  • ‘Protector of the White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) way of life’ exemplified by the romantic, pre-Civil War American South
    • Christian
    • Patriotic
    • Fraternal
    • protector of weak widow women

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

a knightly meeting
A “Knightly” Meeting?
  • Ghosts of the Confederate Army or Teutonic Knights, the effect is largely the same—if they didn’t have guns under those costumes, it would be comedic!

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

the first kkk 1866 1880
The First KKK (1866-1880)
  • Anti-reconstruction, attacking
    • freed slaves exercising their new rights enforced by Federal troops in the South
    • white Northern liberals & ‘carpet baggers’
  • Undermined by
    • disbanding (1869) by its founder (Nathan Bedford Forrest) because it became too violent
    • The Klan Act and The Enforcement Act (1871)

(probably American’s first antiterrorist acts)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

the second kkk 1915 1944
The Second KKK(1915-1944)
  • Founded 1915 (‘Patriotic Movement’)
  • Popularity peaked around 1922 with over 4 million members including many in Northern States
  • Added socialists and communists to its list of undesirables and targets
  • Lost popularity by the 1930s
  • Officially disbanded in 1944

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

the little kkks 1960s present
The Little KKKs(1960s-present)
  • Popularity of white-supremacist groups resurfaced with the civil rights movement during the early 1960s and continues subdued today
  • Currently three KKK factions exist
    • little popularity or power
    • U.S. Hate-Crime laws & aggressive law enforcement have proved effective in minimizing their impact on American society

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

the klan today
The “Klan” Today

Once America's preeminent terrorist organization, the Ku Klux Klan today is a fragmented and amorphous collection of independent groups and individuals, constantly squabbling over diminishing memberships and limited resources. Passed over by most young white supremacists, who consider Klansmen to be ineffectual and faintly ridiculous old-timers, the group presents far less of a threat to public order than at any time in the past century. Despite its dwindling influence, however, the Klan continues to be a specter that haunts the American psyche and the sight of a flaming cross can still inspire both horror and terror.

Anti-Defamation League (www.ADL.org)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

the new anarchists one man terrorist cells
The New Anarchists —One-Man Terrorist Cells?
  • Unabomber (1978-1996)
  • Oklahoma City bombing (1995)

Psychopathology or disorganized terrorist movement?

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

unabomber 1978 1996
Unabomber (1978-1996)
  • Theodore John Kaczynski (b. 1942)
  • UC-Berkeley professor (Ph.D., mathematics)
  • mail bombs killed 3, injured 29
  • 6-year break in bombings (1987-1993)
  • “Unabomber Manifesto” (1995)—”Industrial Society and Its Future”reluctantly published by theNew York Times and the Washington Post
  • arrested Lincoln, Montana, April 3, 1996
  • pleaded guilty January 22, 1998
  • sentenced to life in prisonwithout possibility of parole

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

oklahoma city bombing 1995
Oklahoma City Bombing (1995)
  • Timothy McVeigh (1968-2001)
  • decorated Gulf War veteran
  • 5,000 lb. truck bomb: 168 killed including 19 children in a day care center, over 800 injured
  • destroyed Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building
  • arrested within an hour after attack
  • convicted June 2, 1997
  • executed June 11, 2001
  • others convicted
    • Terry Nichols sentenced to life in prison (manslaughter)
    • Michael Fortier sentenced to12 years in prison (failure to warn)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

status of american domestic terrorists
Status of American Domestic Terrorists
  • American domestic terrorists are probably not a serious threat to anybody but themselves
    • white-supremacist groups exist but lack power or widespread support
    • solitary anarchists are few and probably detectable by their underlying psychopathologies

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

status of terrorism in northern ireland
Status of Terrorism in Northern Ireland
  • The “troubles” in Northern Ireland remain unresolved, but
    • IRA and Ulster terrorist activities have diminished to a whisper, and
    • the conflict is strictly regional

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

status of arab israeli terrorism through 2004
Status of Arab-Israeli Terrorism through 2004
  • Continues although there is renewed optimism for a resolution
    • the Palestinian conflict is the dominant issue today
      • focus for anti-American sentiment in the Arab world and elsewhere
      • part of the justification for terrorist attacks on America
    • peaceful coexistence seems possible

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

recent progress in the arab israeli conflict
Recent Progress in the Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • 2005 signaled more progress
    • Yassar Arafat died: many believed his dominant control of the Palestinian government and his tacit support of terrorism were obstacles to peace
    • Israel relinquished control of several key areas claimed by the Arab Palestinians: the land included valuable agricultural areas that could provide considerable economic opportunity for the Palestinian people (the U.S. government provided over $100 million in compensation to Israel for the loss and continues to provide economic aid to both Israel and the Palestinians)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

current set back in the arab israeli conflict
Current Set-Back in the Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • 2005 ended and 2006 began with renewed tensions
    • Iran suppressed its movement towards liberalization with a new conservative president who pledges to destroy Israel: Iran continues to support radical Islamic fundamentalist in Iraq and may be resuming work towards developing atomic weapons
    • Hamas won a major victory in a democratic election and will most likely form the new Palestinian government: Hamas maintains its terrorist organization status committed to the destruction of Israel

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

prospects for peace in the middle east
Prospects for Peace in the Middle East
  • Radical Islamic fundamentalists in Iran (official government) and in Iraq (Shiite majority) may present a unified threat
  • Palestinian “struggle” provides the focal point, but the objective is to destabilize secular governments and to restore Islamic rule in the Middle East while obliterating Israel

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

development of global terrorism
Development of Global Terrorism
  • Radical Islamic Fundamentalists
    • view the West as the source for Arabproblems
    • demand Americanand other Westerninfluences out of thenations of Islam

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

radical islamic fundamentalists
Radical Islamic Fundamentalists
  • Short-term goal (majority view)
    • Predominantly Muslim countries should be governed by Islamic law
  • Intermediate goal (plurality view)
    • Reconquest of Muslim lands
  • Long-term goal (minority view?)
    • Global Islamic state and the conversion of all nonbelievers

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

muslim world views
Muslim World Views
  • Many are progressive
  • Some are conservative
  • A few are fundamentalists
  • Only a very few fundamentalists are radicals who preach intolerance and terror in the name of God

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

the radical islamic fundentalist threat
The Radical Islamic Fundentalist Threat
  • The threat comes from the very few and from those driven to adopt their radical beliefs by socioeconomic and other conditions that deprive Muslims
  • Despotic rulers, apostates, and evil Western leaders are believed to be the source of the Arab ‘problem’

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

global terrorism in the new millennium
Global Terrorism in the New Millennium
  • Unable to achieve success in their home countries
  • Now targeting the United States and other Western powers
    • the West is viewed as the supporters of despotic, apostate Arab regimes
    • the West is viewed as easier, soft targets
  • Islamic terrorists are considered the most serious threat worldwide

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth

slide62

The ruling to kill the Americans and their allies–civilians and military–is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it. Osama bin Laden (1998)

Copyright 2005-2006 Michael A. Bozarth