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Evaluating the Quality and Impact of Reproductive Health Research Jane T. Bertrand FRONTIERS/Tulane Southampton Jan. 23, 2001
Why Evaluate? • To determine whether OR studies have the desired impact of changing service delivery or policy • To identify factors influencing utilization • To highlight the importance of utilizing the results to researchers involved • To apply lessons learned to other OR studies • To be accountable to donors
What are we evaluating? • Interventions: • What has been the impact of the intervention on the target population? • Example: teen pregnancy program in England • Research: • what has been the impact of research on service delivery and policy?
Advantages of op. research to government official/policy makers • Allows them to test out controversial interventions on a small scale at lower political risk • If successful, take credit and scale up. • If unsuccessful, “that was just a trial.”
Increased emphasis on evaluation in USAID-funded projects • The EVALUATION Project in 1991: • Improve state-of-the art in program evaluation • MEASURE Evaluation – 1997 to present: • Apply improved evaluation methods in the field • USAID switched from log frame approach to results framework: • Strategic objective, intermediate results • EMPHASIS ON RESULTS, not on ACTIVITIES • Based on a tracking of indicators
Evaluating Operations Research • In the past, process evaluation: • How many projects? How well done? • Qualitative assessments-short term impacts • Need to develop an assessment of impact: • Has OR succeeded in changing service delivery procedures or influencing policy?
Approach developed under FRONTIERS • Drew on indicators developed by an O.R. working group under the EVALUATION Project • Pre-tested methodology on completed projects in selected countries: • 1999: Peru, Kenya, Philippines • 2000: Honduras, Senegal, Bangladesh
Data collection process • Two person evaluation team: • FRONTIERS/Tulane staff, consultant • Duration of data collection: • one week in country • Sources of data • Project reports, other documentation • Key informant interviews using assessment form • Assessment forms: (see Appendix A) • used to guide discussion • used to present/document results
Process Impact Contextual factors Types of indicators
Process Indicators • P-1. Implementing organization actively participated in study design • P-2. Implementing organization actively participated in conduct of OR project • P-3. Study accomplished its research objectives • P-4. Intervention was implemented as planned • P-5. Completed without delays that would compromise validity of research design
Process indicators (cont’d) • P-6. Implementing agency participated in developing programmatic recommendations • P-7 Continuity in key personnel over the life of the project • P-8. TA judged sound; congenial manner • P-9. Study design was technically sound • P-10. Research design feasible in local context
Process indicators (cont’d) • P-11. Results judged credible/valid locally • P-12. Research relevant to local program managers • P-13. Study included an assessment of costs • P-14. Results disseminated to key audiences • P-15. Results readily available in written form
Impact Indicators • I-1. Based on OR results, organization implemented activities to improve services • I-2. Improvements in service delivery were observable • I-3. Improvement still observable 24 months post-implementation. • I-4. Implementing agency conducted subsequent OR • I-5. …conducted OR without PC assistance
Impact Indicators (cont’d) • I-6. Intervention scaled up - same organization • I-7. Intervention adopted - another organization • I-8. Intervention replicated in another country • I-9. Change in national policy linked to OR study • I-10. Original donors funded activities based on results • I-11. New donors funded activities based on OR
Contextual factors: • Factors that facilitated: • Conduct of study • Utilization- of results • Factors that impeded: • Conduct of study • Utilization of results
FINDINGS: THREE CASE STUDIES • Limited to intervention/evaluative studies • Total number of projects: 28 • Bangladesh: 10 • Honduras: 10 • Senegal: 8
Process Indicators: Three Countries P 1 – P 7 28/28 28/28 26/28 10/10 10/12 26/26 21/26 Indicators Percentage of Projects with Positive Score on Indicators
Process Indicators: Three Countries P 8 - P 15 28/28 21/24 27/27 26/27 Indicators 28/28 27/27 28/28 Percentage of Projects with Positive Score on Indicators
Impact Indicators: Three Countries I 1- I 6 25/27 21/21 19/21 13/18 2/3 18/22 Indicators Percentage of Projects with Positive Score on Indicators
Impact Indicators: Three Countries I 7- I 11 9/17 2/13 10/27 5/23 7/23 Indicators Percentage of Projects with Positive Score on Indicators
Advantages of Methodology • Both quantitative and qualitative • Summary table of data easily produced and interpreted • Concrete examples included • Provides rich information on factors affecting utilization
Limitations • Can not prove cause and effect • Rather: “plausible attribution” if: • change in service delivery occurred after intervention, and • change is consistent with OR results • Requires some subjective judgements; potential for bias • Staff turnover may affect quality of data
Next steps • Apply methodology to all FRONTIERS projects (n=75+) • Timing: • At end of project • 36 months later • Project monitor to report • Subset (25%) to be verified by external team • Compile results in ACCESS data base
Analyses to be Conducted at Close of FRONTIERS • Creation of scale for performance of each project on process and impact • Correlations and cluster analysis of different indicators in the data set • Determinants of impact: what indicators of process are significantly related to impact? • Meta-analyses: by country, region, topic
…wish us luck • Stay tuned for the results. • Thanks for attending.