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Electric Charges and Current. Chapter 20. Electric Charge. proton - positive charge electron - negative charge Charges that are the same repel each other. Charges that are different attract each other.

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## Electric Charges and Current

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**Electric Charges and Current**Chapter 20**Electric Charge**• proton - positive charge • electron - negative charge • Charges that are the same repel each other. • Charges that are different attract each other. Chapter 20**Electric field - the region around charged particles through**which a force is exerted. • electric field lines pg. 646 Chapter 20**Static Electricity**• A buildup of charges on an object. • In static electricity, charges build up, but they do not flow • transferring charge - friction, conduction & induction (overhead) • static cling - fabrics rub together • when a negatively charged object and a positively charged object are brought together, electrons move until both objects have the same charge. Chapter 20**Lightning - discharge of static electricity**• electroscope - instrument used to detect electric charge Chapter 20**Circuit Measurements**• electric potential - potential energy per unit of electric charge • voltage - difference in electrical potential between two points • electricity flows from higher potential to lower potential • voltage causes current to flow through an electric circuit • voltage sources - battery and generators Chapter 20**just as an increase in the difference in height causes a**greater flow of water, an increase in voltage causes a greater flow of electric current pg.656 • the greater the resistance, the less current there is for a given voltage. • Long/short • thick/thin wires • electricity will take the path of least resistance • birds on a wire Chapter 20**voltmeter - measures voltage**• ammeter - measures current • Voltage = current x resistance V=IR • Sample problems pg.659 Chapter 20**Series and Parallel Circuits**• series circuit - there is only one path for the current to take • one bulb out - all out, • resistance increases with more bulbs • parallel circuit - there are several paths for current to take • one bulb out - others on, • resistance decreases • household circuits in parallel Chapter 20**Electrical Safety**• short circuit - a connection that allows current to take an unintended path • damaged insulation, water on floor, barefoot • three prong plugs - electricity flows to ground instead of person if short circuit occurs Chapter 20**when lightning strikes the lightning rod, charges flow**through the rod, into the wire and then into the Earth Chapter 20**electrical current can become to high if a circuit is**overloaded. In order to prevent circuits from overheating, devices called fuses and circuit breakers are added to circuits. Open circuits when overload • the severity of electric shock depends on the current • electric safety pg.670 Chapter 20

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