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Electric Charges and Current. Chapter 20. Electric Charge. proton - positive charge electron - negative charge Charges that are the same repel each other. Charges that are different attract each other.

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Presentation Transcript
electric charge
Electric Charge
  • proton - positive charge
  • electron - negative charge
  • Charges that are the same repel each other.
  • Charges that are different attract each other.

Chapter 20

slide3
Electric field - the region around charged particles through which a force is exerted.
  • electric field lines pg. 646

Chapter 20

static electricity
Static Electricity
  • A buildup of charges on an object.
    • In static electricity, charges build up, but they do not flow
  • transferring charge - friction, conduction & induction (overhead)
  • static cling - fabrics rub together
  • when a negatively charged object and a positively charged object are brought together, electrons move until both objects have the same charge.

Chapter 20

slide5
Lightning - discharge of static electricity
  • electroscope - instrument used to detect electric charge

Chapter 20

circuit measurements
Circuit Measurements
  • electric potential - potential energy per unit of electric charge
  • voltage - difference in electrical potential between two points
  • electricity flows from higher potential to lower potential
  • voltage causes current to flow through an electric circuit
  • voltage sources - battery and generators

Chapter 20

slide7
just as an increase in the difference in height causes a greater flow of water, an increase in voltage causes a greater flow of electric current pg.656
  • the greater the resistance, the less current there is for a given voltage.
    • Long/short
    • thick/thin wires
  • electricity will take the path of least resistance
    • birds on a wire

Chapter 20

slide8
voltmeter - measures voltage
  • ammeter - measures current
  • Voltage = current x resistance V=IR
    • Sample problems pg.659

Chapter 20

series and parallel circuits
Series and Parallel Circuits
  • series circuit - there is only one path for the current to take
    • one bulb out - all out,
    • resistance increases with more bulbs
  • parallel circuit - there are several paths for current to take
    • one bulb out - others on,
    • resistance decreases
  • household circuits in parallel

Chapter 20

electrical safety
Electrical Safety
  • short circuit - a connection that allows current to take an unintended path
  • damaged insulation, water on floor, barefoot
  • three prong plugs - electricity flows to ground instead of person if short circuit occurs

Chapter 20

slide11
when lightning strikes the lightning rod, charges flow through the rod, into the wire and then into the Earth

Chapter 20

slide12
electrical current can become to high if a circuit is overloaded. In order to prevent circuits from overheating, devices called fuses and circuit breakers are added to circuits. Open circuits when overload
  • the severity of electric shock depends on the current
  • electric safety pg.670

Chapter 20