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Consumer Preference for Wild Caught and Farm Raised Seafood. Kelly Davidson, Minling Pan NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Wuyang Hu, Devie Poerwanto University of Kentucky Dept. of Agricultural Economics. A Comparison across Species and Consumer Residence States.

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consumer preference for wild caught and farm raised seafood

Consumer Preference for Wild Caught and Farm Raised Seafood

Kelly Davidson, Minling Pan

NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center

Wuyang Hu, Devie PoerwantoUniversity of KentuckyDept. of Agricultural Economics

A Comparison across Species and Consumer Residence States

CNREP Conference, New Orleans, LA

May 26-28, 2010

u s beef chicken and fish consumption 1980 2008
u.s. Beef, chicken, and fish consumption, 1980-2008

Source: USDA/Economic Research Service Per Capita Availability Data

NOAA Fisheries of the United States Report, 2008

a closer look at u s per capita fish consumption 1980 2008
A closer look at u.s. per capita fish consumption, 1980-2008

Source: NOAA Fisheries of the United States Report, 2008

u s seafood consumption nmfs data
U.S. Seafood Consumption (nmfs data)
  • 2008 U.S. Per Capita Fish/Shellfish Consumption 16.0 pounds
    • 84% imported, over half of imported seafood is farm raised
    • U.S. freshwater and marine aquaculture combined provide 5% of seafood demand
    • U.S. seafood trade deficit of over $9 billion
  • US ranked 3rd in seafood consumption behind China and Japan
    • 2008 consumer expenditures on fishery products over $69.9 Billion
      • Nearly $35 Billion in value-added contributing to GNP
top ten species us per capita seafood consumption in 2008
Top ten species: US per capita Seafood consumption in 2008

Source: National Fisheries Institute, 2010

global aquaculture
Global aquaculture
  • World Per Capita Fish/Shellfish Consumption 36.2 lbs
  • Global wild fish harvest 90-95 million tons/yr
  • Global aquaculture production 60 million tons/yr
    • Value of $70 billion per yr
    • Total U.S. aquaculture production approx. $1.2 billion per yr
  • China leads in both aquaculture and wild catch
    • 31 million mT farmed in 2007
    • 14 million mT caught in 2007
  • U.S. and Japan major importers of fishery products – over $13 billion each

Source: FAO data and NOAA Aquaculture Statistics

hawaii seafood market
Hawaii Seafood market
  • Local per capita seafood consumption rate approx. 3 times the national average
  • Demand for most products > supply
    • Imports 75% of all seafood consumed
  • Fresh and live product markets
  • Tourism, “ethnic markets”
    • Premium price for fresh, high quality seafood

Source: Hawaii Dept. of Agriculture

hawaii aquaculture
Hawaii aquaculture
  • 70 aquaculture operations statewide
  • Offshore Marine Culture
    • Hukilau Foods
      • Moi Cage Culture
    • Kona Blue Water Farms
      • Kona Kampachi
  • Record $34.7 Million total grown in 2008
    • 38% increase from 2007
    • Hawaii County accounted for 80%

Source: National Agricultural Statistics Service USDA, Hawaii Field Office

pilot study rationale
pilot study rationale
  • NOAA Aquaculture Policy
  • What seafood attributes are important when comparing aquaculture with wild catch?
    • Perceptions of aquaculture
  • Consumer preferences
    • Across species
      • Popular (tuna, salmon) and less familiar (moi, tilapia)
    • Across different residence states
pilot study august 2009
Pilot study – august 2009
  • 15 respondents in Hawaii, 17 in Kentucky
    • Clarity of survey questions
    • Awareness of aquaculture
    • Familiarity with species
    • Attribute question for each species used to determine conjoint analysis cards

1=Not important, 5=Very Important

pilot survey questions
Pilot survey questions
  • Which of the following have you purchased for home consumption in the past 60 days?
    • Top ten species
  • How often can you find fish from aquaculture in the market?
  • For seafood, which of the following types do you prefer most:
    • Wild caught
    • Inshore aquaculture
    • Offshore aquaculture
    • Land-based aquaculture
  • What are the main reasons? (environmental issues, natural resource uses, taste, food safety standards, price, other)
more pilot survey questions
More pilot survey questions
  • For each species, which type of product have you purchased?
    • Wild Caught, Farm Raised, Both, Neither, Unsure
  • How do you perceive the status of wild fish in the U.S. for each species?
    • Severely Overfished, Moderately Overfished, Not at all Overfished, Unsure
  • Are you more likely to purchase seafood grown locally in your area?
interesting comparisons from pilot responses
Interesting comparisons from pilot responses
  • Consumers are less familiar with term “aquaculture” than “farm-raised”
  • Top ten species consumption
    • Shrimp, canned tuna, fresh tuna, salmon relatively equally popular in each state
    • More variation in Kentucky: Pollock, Tilapia, Catfish, Cod – zero consumed in Hawaii, some in KY
  • Are you able to differentiate between wild fish and aquaculture fish, either pre or post-consumption?
    • 12/17 in KY “sometimes, most of the time, always”
    • 9/15 in HI “rarely, never” 6 in HI “sometimes” or more
more interesting comparisons
More interesting comparisons
  • Are you more likely to purchase seafood grown locally in your area?
    • Hawaii: 9 yes, 4 no, 2 unsure
    • Kentucky: 4 yes, 9 no, 2 unsure
  • Price always important attribute for each species
  • Biggest differences for importance of each attribute between Tilapia and Moi
    • Product familiarity
    • Tilapia availability: 5 Hawaii respondents indifferent, only 3 said availability was important compared to 8 in Kentucky
  • Importance of product availability differed by species
    • Tuna availability more important in Hawaii
    • Salmon and Tilapia availability important in Kentucky
research objectives
Research objectives
  • Consumer preferences across species, different residence states
    • Production Methods
    • Tastes
    • Perceptions
    • Species Attributes
    • Hawaii vs. Kentucky: cultural and geographical differences in consumer preferences
  • Objectives
    • Examine consumer preference toward farm-raised versus wild caught fish
    • Evaluate the impact of preference related attributes across species on consumption decisions and WTP
  • Consumer surveys
    • Online
    • Face-to-face
  • Consumer preference elicitation method
    • Attitude and perception questions
    • Past consumption history: quantities and price
    • Hypothetical consumption questions for moi/tilapia
    • Choice experiment (conjoint analysis) on attributes of species
      • Tuna, Salmon, Tilapia, Moi
  • Data analysis
    • Multivariate regression analysis
    • Discrete choice models
sample conjoint card
Sample conjoint card
  • Wild caught
  • Previously frozen
  • $25.49/lb
  • Farm raised
  • Previously frozen
  • Turtle safe
  • $19.99/lb

I will not choose either A or B

Option A

Option B

Option C

Tuna (Sashimi Grade Steak): Situation 2

conjoint analysis species and attributes
Conjoint analysis: species and attributes
  • Salmon
    • Wild Caught/Farm Raised
    • Previously Frozen/Fresh
    • Imported/US Domestic
  • Tilapia
    • Locally Grown
    • Veg. Feed/Synthetic
    • P. Frozen/Fresh/Live
  • Tuna
    • Wild Caught/Farm Raised
    • P. Frozen/Fresh
    • Turtlesafe Logo
  • Moi (pacific threadfin)
    • Locally Grown
    • Land-based/Ocean-based/Wild Caught