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Chapter 3 Lexical & Grammatical Morphology

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Chapter 3 Lexical & Grammatical Morphology. Morphology Lane 333. Lexicon & Grammar . ‘actors’: grammatical word form of the LEXEME ACTOR Consider morphemes in ‘act-or-s’ Each morpheme functions differently ‘-s’ reflects the category of NUMBER (plural)

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lexicon grammar
Lexicon & Grammar
  • ‘actors’: grammatical word form of the LEXEME ACTOR
  • Consider morphemes in ‘act-or-s’
  • Each morpheme functions differently
  • ‘-s’ reflects the category of NUMBER (plural)
  • ‘-or’ changes verb into noun (performer of the action)
inflectional morphology
Inflectional Morphology
  • Inflection (grammatical morphology): the process that builds word-forms of countless lexemes & it builds up paradigms of lexemes
  • never change the category of the word they are attached to (-s, -ing, -ed)
  • don’t change the meaning
  • they are only bound morphemes
  • grammatical morphemes follow lexical morphemes & come only after the stem
inflectional suffixes of english
Inflectional suffixes of English
  • -s 3rd per.sg. present waits
  • -ed past tense waited
  • -ing progressive waiting
  • -en past participle eaten
  • -s plural chairs
  • -’s possessive girl’s
  • -er comparative faster
  • -est superlative fastest
derivational morphology
Derivational morphology
  • Derivation (Lexical morphology): the process of building up new words by adding morphemes (derivational) that change the meaning, or part of speech of a word
  • may change the category of the word they are attached to (-ful in ‘beatiful’, -ish in ‘warmish’)
  • change the meaning
  • either bound or free
  • produce lexemes
exercise
Exercise

3.3 Which morphemes are lexical & which are grammatical?

sparkler benighted detective tympani

speeding straightest platypus partly

threaded oxen disharmony ghastlier

horsebox embolden two-handed servant

exercise1
Exercise

3.5 Can you segment these words?

linguist utilize arrogant alacrity

terrify location mechanic democrat

bound lexical morphemes
Bound Lexical morphemes
  • the bits left over are ‘Bound Lexicalmorphemes’; e.g ‘lingu’
  • they don’t belong to any lexical category
  • hard to specify their precise dictionary meaning
  • ‘bovine’ : ‘bov’ bound lexical morpheme (to do with cattle)
bound lexical morphemes1
Bound Lexical morphemes
  • Almost all bound lexical morphemes are of Greek, or Latin origin
  • used to create words for special purposes (scientific, technological)
  • Cranberry morphemes: have no other function but to distinguish different types of whatever is indicated by some other morpheme in the word; e.g. (raspberry, cranberry, bilberry)
  • no meaning except type of berry
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