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Chapter 11 Internet Technology 11.1 Historical Development of the Internet 3 11.2 Connecting to the Internet 4 11.3 How does the Internet work? 10 Chapter 11 Internet Technology 11.1 Historical Development of the Internet (1) A. Development of Internet

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chapter 11 internet technology

Chapter 11 Internet Technology

11.1 Historical Development of the Internet 3

11.2 Connecting to the Internet 4

11.3 How does the Internet work? 10

11 1 historical development of the internet 1
Chapter 11 Internet Technology11.1 Historical Development of the Internet (1)
  • A. Development of Internet
    • In 1969, the US Defense Department built a network called the ARPANET
      • Tied together computers of military and universities

1. Allow geographically separated computers to share data

2. Allow communication via e-mails

3. Designed to withstand damage

        • Data could bypass the damaged part of the network

4. Allow various types of computers to run on it

11 1 historical development of the internet 2
Chapter 11 Internet Technology11.1 Historical Development of the Internet (2)
    • Initially, ARPANET consisted of four main computers
    • In 1986, US NSF connected its network of supercomputers to ARPANET
  • Civilian network
    • NSF allowed anyone to join the network
    • ARPANET is renamed as “Internet”
11 1 historical development of the internet 3
Chapter 11 Internet Technology11.1 Historical Development of the Internet (3)
  • B. Development of WWW
    • The popularity of the Internet is due to the World Wide Web (WWW), or the Web
      • Internet’s fast growing portion
    • The Web was invented by Dr. Tim Berners-Lee in 1991
      • A researcher in CERN
    • In 1993, Mosaic was developed
      • The first widely distributed Web browser by Marc Andreessen
    • Mosaic is the ancestor of today’s Web browsers
      • e.g. Netscape or Internet Explorer
11 2 connecting to the internet
Chapter 11 Internet Technology11.2 Connecting to the Internet
  • 1. Internet Service Provider
  • 2. Internet Access for Home Users
    • Dial-up Access
    • Broadband Access
  • 3. Internet Access by Network Users
  • 4. Internet Access by Mobile Users
11 2 1 internet service providers 1
11.2 Connecting to the Internet11.2.1 Internet Service Providers (1)
  • Internet
    • Global collection of networks
    • Collaborative:
      • Each member network provides
        • servers
        • communication devices and
        • connecting lines etc.
      • Directs traffic
    • The Internet is not run by a single organisation
    • Large organisations provide Backbones
      • e.g. UUNET and NASAR
      • High-speed channels that link the networks
11 2 1 internet service providers 2
11.2 Connecting to the Internet11.2.1 Internet Service Providers (2)
  • Internet service providers (ISP)
    • Offer Internet access to
      • individuals, companies and organisations.
    • Have permanent connection to the Internet backbone
    • Service may be
      • charged at an hourly rate
      • fixed monthly amount for unlimited access
        • means that there is no limit for duration of connection
11 2 2 internet access for home users 1
11.2 Connecting to the Internet11.2.2 Internet Access for Home Users (1)
  • 1. Dial-up Access
    • Using regular modem and telephone line
    • Temporary link to the Internet
    • Modem is connected to the serial port
      • Network interface card (NIC) is not necessary
    • Inexpensive but slow
      • 56 kbps
      • In Hong Kong, need to pay for PNETS
        • Public Non-Exclusive Telecommunications Service
        • charging per minute use telephone line
      • Connection may not be successful due to busy phone line
11 2 2 internet access for home users 2
11.2 Connecting to the Internet11.2.2 Internet Access for Home Users (2)
  • 2. Broadband Access

(1) Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) or

(2) Cable TV network.

    • Hardware needed:
      • NIC and
      • Special modem
    • Applying advanced technology over telephone line
      • very high transfer rate up to 1.5 M to 10 Mbps
    • Connection is fast and easy because
      • dial-up is not necessary
    • Installed by trained technicians
11 2 3 internet access for network users
11.2 Connecting to the Internet11.2.3 Internet Access for Network Users
  • Hardware
    • Router
      • to connect a LAN to the Internet
      • Wireless access point, wireless NIC
        • more convenient
  • Access to ISP via

1. broadband with telephone line/optical fibre

2. ISDN with dedicated phone line

3. T1 with a digital line

4. Wireless technology with radio waves/satellites

    • Unlimited access
      • Fixed monthly payment.
11 2 4 internet access by mobile users
11.2 Connecting to the Internet11.2.4 Internet Access by Mobile Users
  • Wireless Service Provider (WSP)
    • a type of ISP
    • that uses radio waves
      • rather than cable
    • to provide Internet access to users of wireless devices
      • e.g. handheld computers and mobile phones
11 3 how does the internet work
Chapter 11 Internet Technology11.3 How Does the Internet Work?
  • A. TCP/IP
  • B. IP Address
  • C. Domain Name
  • D. Internet Address
  • E. DNS Server
11 3 1 tcp ip 1
11.3 How Does the Internet work?11.3.1 TCP/IP (1)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP)
    • Set of rules used in data transmission on the Internet
    • Data is broken up into small packets by the sender
    • Each packet is directed by a series of routers
      • So, different packets use different routes
    • Finally, recombined by the receiver.
11 3 1 tcp ip 2
11.3 How Does the Internet work?11.3.1 TCP/IP (2)
  • Advantages of TCP/IP:

1. The load of transmission lines is evenly distributed

2. Unaffected by the failure of any path

      • More than one path, the packets would be routed round the problem

3. Entire message is guaranteed to be transmitted

      • If packet is not received properly, request re-transmission

4. Different Computers can communicate

      • for all OS that support TCP/IP
11 3 2 ip address
11.3 How Does the Internet work?11.3.2 IP Address
  • On the Internet, computers have unique IP address
    • each can be uniquely identified
  • A series of four numbers separated by a period
    • Each number between 0 and 255
    • e.g. 202.148.153.59
  • Combination of IP addresses is
    • 256 x 256 x 256 x 256.
  • Large organisations: permanent
  • Home users: temporary
  • Each packet carries IP addresses of sender and receiver
    • Similar to the addresses on an envelope
11 3 3 domain name 1
11.3 How Does the Internet work?11.3.3 Domain Name (1)
  • IP address
    • Used by computers
      • difficult for people to remember
    • May change if it is shared
  • Domain
    • A group of computers under the same organization
  • Domain name
      • Text version of IP address
      • of a server of the organisation
      • using words separated by periods, e.g.
      • “Radian.com.hk”
      • More meaningful and easy-to-remember
11 3 3 domain name 2
11.3 How Does the Internet work?11.3.3 Domain Name (2)
  • Top level domains
    • can be

1. Generic top level domains

      • e.g. .com, .org, etc.

2. Country-code top level domains

      • e.g. .hk, .cn, .au, etc.
  • Second-level domains
    • under .hk
      • .com.hk, .org.hk, .net.hk
      • .edu.hk, .gov.hk, .idv.hk
11 3 4 internet address 1
11.3 How Does the Internet work?11.3.4 Internet address (1)
  • 1. Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
    • Address of a Web page
      • e.g. http://www.radian.com.hk/forum/content.html
    • Defining the route to a file on the Web, including
      • Protocol prefix e.g. http://, ftp://, news://
      • Type of host server e.g. www, mail, ftp
      • Domain name e.g. gov.hk, radian.com.hk
      • Subdirectory name e.g. forum
      • Filename. For example, e.g. content.html
11 3 4 internet address 2
11.3 How Does the Internet work?11.3.4 Internet address (2)
  • 2. Home page
    • Starting page of a Web site
    • Stored in the root directory
    • Filename:
      • Index or Default
      • with extension: html, htm, asp, jsp etc.
11 3 4 internet address 3
11.3 How Does the Internet work?11.3.4 Internet address (3)
  • 3. e-mail address
    • Format :
    • No space between any of the words
    • User names in the same domain are unique
11 3 5 dns servers
11.3 How Does the Internet work?11.3.5 DNS Servers
  • DNS Servers
    • Translate domain name into IP address
    • maintain a table with
      • Domain names of organisations and their corresponding IP addresses
    • For each domain name, e.g. e-mail address or URL
      • DNS server translates into IP address
    • Kept by major ISP
      • the table is updated regularly
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