Alcohol and alcoholism
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Alcohol and alcoholism. Physical effects of alcohol use Biopsychosocial effects of alcohol abuse. Physical effects of alcohol use. Cardiovascular benefits from 1 glass of wine per day: The French paradox? The benefits disappear at the equivalent of three glasses per day.

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Alcohol and alcoholism

Physical effects of alcohol use

Biopsychosocial effects of alcohol abuse

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Physical effects of alcohol use

  • Cardiovascular benefits from 1 glass of wine per day: The French paradox?

  • The benefits disappear at the equivalent of three glasses per day.

  • The same benefit can be obtained from grape juice, but it takes six glasses per day: the beneficial ingredient in wine may be flavinoids rather than alcohol

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Is the French paradox really a paradox?

  • Cardiovascular disease is a cumulative, delayed consequence of many factors, including diet.

  • Prior to the 1960s, the French diet was much lower in saturated fat than the American diet.

  • American “control group” studies are correlational.

  • Participants are self-assigned to groups.

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Other physical effects

  • Gastrointestinal system

    • Dissolving of mucosal lining

    • Hemorrhagic lesions of stomach lining

    • Increased HCl secretion, secondary to lesions

    • Shortening and lesions of intestinal villi

  • Pancreas

    • Pancreatitis

    • Diabetes or reactive hypoglycemia

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More physical effects...

  • Liver

    • Steatosis

    • Alcoholic hepatitis

    • Cirrhosis

    • Cancer

  • Cardiovascular system

    • Declining red and white blood cell counts

    • Cardiomyopathy

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More physical effects...

  • Central nervous system

    • Acute brain damage

    • Alcohol-induced brain damage

    • Chronic brain damage

      • Atrophy

      • Dementia

      • Nutritional deficit damage

      • Encephalopathy

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Approaches to alcohol use

  • Total abstinence

  • Cultural uniformity

    • Israel & Italy vs. Ireland & Finland

  • Parental introduction vs. parental prohibition (Mitic, 1990)

  • Is it possible to teach controlled drinking in a culture of excess?

  • Would the FDA approve alcohol today?

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  • Definitions

  • Etiology

    • Family studies

    • Biological marker studies

    • EEG studies

    • Adoption studies

    • Twin Studies

    • Physiological theories

    • Sociocultural theories: Ledermann

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Treatments for alcoholism

  • Controlled drinking

  • Total abstinence

  • Comorbidity problems

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Pharmacological support

  • Antabuse

  • Apomorphine for conditioned aversion

    • Not popular currently

  • Antipsychotics for hallucinations: Dangerous

  • Antidepressants for comorbid depression

  • Benzodiazepines for withdrawal

  • Naltrexone for craving

  • Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, for early-onset alcoholism

  • Acamprosate, a glutamate agonist at NMDA receptors and a GABA-A agonist

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Abused Inhalants: huffing

  • Gases: Nitrous oxide and halothane

    • Anaesthetics, propellant for whipped cream

  • Volatile liquids

    • Ether and chloroform

    • Petroleum distillates

      • Gasoline, paint thinners, toluene, butane, propane

      • Solvents: Benzene, correction fluid, markers

    • Aerosol propellants: cooking spray, stain protectors, paint (chroming, from popularity of silver and gold spray paint)

    • Nitrites: Butyl, cyclohexyl (deodorizer), propyl and amyl (poppers, snappers). Nitrites are used mainly by adults, in an attempt to enhance sexual sensations.

  • Abused inhalants cause irregular heart rhythms, and are sometimes lethal.