This Is the Short Description About the Basics Concepts Of C Programming.. It will Give you a Basic Concept of how to implement a code ...
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C++ (pronouncedcee plus plus/ˈsiː plʌsplʌs/) is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing facilities for low-levelmemory manipulation.
Before the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979, as an extension of the C language as he wanted an efficient and flexible language similar to C, which also provided high-level features for program organization.
C++ is one of the most versatile languages in the world. It is used nearly everywhere for everything… systems programming (operating systems, device drivers, database engines, embedded, Internet of Things, etc.)
C++ is an object oriented programming (OOP) language, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup, and is an extension of C language. It is therefore possible to code C++ in a "C style" or "object-oriented style."
The format of writing program in C++ is called its STRUCTURE.
It consists of the following parts:
Preprocessor Directive is an instruction given to the compiler before the execution of actual program. Preprocessor directive is also known as Compiler directive.
The preprocessor directive start with “Hash”
Include preprocessor directive is used to include header files in the program.
Header files contain definitions of Functions and Variables, which is imported or used into any C++ program by using the pre-processor #include statement. Header file have an extension ".h" which contains C++ function declaration and macro definition.
The syntax of header files is as follows:
Name of header file can also be used in double quotes as follow:
The word “iostream” stands for input/output stream. This header file contains the definitions of built-in input and output functions and objects.
The main() function is the starting point of a C++ program. Each program must contain main() function. If a program does not contain main function, it can be compiled but cannot be executed.
The syntax of main() function is as follows:
body of main function
The following example explains the basic structure of C++ program: #include<iostream.h> Preprocessor
void main() Main function
cout<<“Hello world”; Body Statement
A Datatype actually describes you data like what form of data you want to create (It may be integer, character, floating point number, string etc.) In the context of C++, you can make many types of data that are mentioned above.
To make integer datatype, you type intand then write its name (called variable name). To create floating point datatype , you type float and then write its variable. That is actually a syntax of C++. (It may differ for other languages).
A Variable is a named memory location or memory cell. It is used to store program`s input data. The value of variable may change during the execution of program. However, the name of variable cannot be changed.
The variables are created in RAM. RAM is a temporary memory. That is why the data stored in variables is also temporary.
The data stored in the variable is automatically removed when program ends.
The process of specifying the variable name and its type is called “Variable Declaration”.
The process of assigning a value to a variable at the time of declaration is known as “Variable initialization”.
The equal sign ‘=‘ is used to initialize a variable. Variable name is given on left side and value is given on the right side of equal sign.
The syntax of initializing a variable is as follows:
data_type variable_name =value;
int n =100;
An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations. C++ is rich in built-in operators and provides the variety of operators: Arithmetic Operators. Relational Operators.
The operators can be categorized as follow:
A type of operator that works with one operand is known as unary operator.
-,++,--, -a, N++, --x
A type of operator that works with two operands is known as Binary Operator.
a + b;
C++ uses operators to do arithmetic. It provides operators for five basic arithmetic calculations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and taking the modulus. Each of these operators uses two values (called operands) to calculate a final answer
Suppose we have 2 variables A & B where A=10 & B=5. Arithmetic operation can be used on A & B as follows:
A statement that assigns a value to a variable is known as “Assignment Statement”.
Variable = expression;
“=” is the assignment operator.
An assignment statement that assigns a value to many variables is known as “Compound Assignment” statement.
x = y= z= 100;
C++ language provides Compound Assignment operator that combines assignment operator with arithmetic operators.
N+=10; is equivalent to N=N+10;
The increment operator is used to increase the value of a variable by 1. It is denoted by the symbol “++”.
Increment operator can be used as follows:
In Prefix form, the increment operator is written before the variable as follows:
In Postfix form, the increment operator is written after the variable as follows:
The Decrement operator is used to decrement the value of a variable by 1. It is denoted by the symbol “—”.
Decrement operator can be used in two forms:
In prefix form, decrement operator is written before the variable as follows:
In postfix form, decrement operator is written after the variable as follows: