Microphones, Speakersand Echo Cancellation Dr. Brian K. Shepard Coordinator of Music Technology Programs University of Oklahoma School of Music
Microphone Types • Dynamic - rugged, warm sounding, requires higher sound levels • Ribbon - rather fragile, warm sounding, works with fairly low sound levels • Condenser - fairly sturdy, bright and crisp sounding (accurate), will work with extremely low sound levels
Omnidirectional Microphone Diaphragm The Omnidirectional Microphone hears in a 360º sphere around the diaphragm.
Figure-8 Microphone The “Figure-8” or Bidirectional Microphone hears in front of and behind the diaphragm.
Cardioid Microphone The Cardioid Pattern Microphone hears predominantly in front of the diaphragm
Supercardioid Microphone The Supercardioid Pattern Microphone hears mostly in front of the diaphragm, but has a small rear pickup lobe.
Hypercardioid Microphone The Hypercardioid Pattern Microphone hears mostly in front of the diaphragm, but with a larger rear lobe and very little side pickup.
Boundary Microphone Because the Boundary Microphone is placed on a flat surface, it hears above and beside the diaphragm in a half-spherical pattern.
Physical Echo-Cancellation Non-Reflective Surface behind the Performer Speakers positioned behind, and off-axis to the Microphones Dynamic, Cardioid Pattern Microphones placed close to the performer
Using Compression to “Duck”Speaker Levels • Insert a “Sidechain” Compressor on Speaker Channels • Set Sidechain “Key” input to the signal from the local microphone(s)
Using Compression to “Duck”Speaker Levels (cont.) • Threshold: Set so the local person’s level is above the threshold, while the remote level is below. • Ratio: Try between 5:1 and 7:1 • Attack: Try between 100 to 250 ms • Release: Try between 500 to 1000 ms • Makeup Gain: Set at 0 dB
Using Gates or Expanders to Silence Microphones • Insert a Gate or Expander on each Microphone Channel • Gates turn off the channel, while Expanders turn down the channel. Thus, Expanders are usually more graceful than Gates.
Using Gates or Expanders to Silence Microphones (cont.) • Threshold: Set so that the local person’s softest level is above the threshold. • Ratio (Expander): Set below 1:1, Try 0.5:1 • Attack: Try between 2 to 10 ms • Release: Try between 50 to 200 ms • Makeup Gain (Expander): Set at 0 dB
For More Information Dr. Brian K. Shepard Coordinator of Music Technology Programs OU School of Music 500 West Boyd Street, Room 138 Norman, OK 73019 (405) 325-0429 firstname.lastname@example.org music.ou.edu/internet2