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Microphones, Speakers and Echo Cancellation. Dr. Brian K. Shepard Coordinator of Music Technology Programs University of Oklahoma School of Music. Microphone Types. Dynamic - rugged, warm sounding, requires higher sound levels

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microphones speakers and echo cancellation

Microphones, Speakersand Echo Cancellation

Dr. Brian K. Shepard

Coordinator of Music Technology Programs

University of Oklahoma School of Music

microphone types
Microphone Types
  • Dynamic - rugged, warm sounding, requires higher sound levels
  • Ribbon - rather fragile, warm sounding, works with fairly low sound levels
  • Condenser - fairly sturdy, bright and crisp sounding (accurate), will work with extremely low sound levels
omnidirectional microphone
Omnidirectional Microphone

Diaphragm

The Omnidirectional Microphone hears in a 360º sphere

around the diaphragm.

figure 8 microphone
Figure-8 Microphone

The “Figure-8” or Bidirectional Microphone hears in

front of and behind the diaphragm.

cardioid microphone
Cardioid Microphone

The Cardioid Pattern Microphone hears predominantly

in front of the diaphragm

supercardioid microphone
Supercardioid Microphone

The Supercardioid Pattern Microphone hears mostly in

front of the diaphragm, but has a small rear pickup lobe.

hypercardioid microphone
Hypercardioid Microphone

The Hypercardioid Pattern Microphone hears mostly in front of the diaphragm, but with a larger rear lobe and very little side pickup.

boundary microphone
Boundary Microphone

Because the Boundary Microphone is placed on a flat surface, it hears above and beside the diaphragm in a half-spherical pattern.

physical echo cancellation11
Physical Echo-Cancellation

Non-Reflective Surface behind the Performer

Speakers positioned

behind, and off-axis

to the Microphones

Dynamic, Cardioid

Pattern Microphones

placed close to the

performer

using compression to duck speaker levels
Using Compression to “Duck”Speaker Levels
  • Insert a “Sidechain” Compressor on Speaker Channels
  • Set Sidechain “Key” input to the signal from the local microphone(s)
using compression to duck speaker levels cont
Using Compression to “Duck”Speaker Levels (cont.)
  • Threshold: Set so the local person’s level is above the threshold, while the remote level is below.
  • Ratio: Try between 5:1 and 7:1
  • Attack: Try between 100 to 250 ms
  • Release: Try between 500 to 1000 ms
  • Makeup Gain: Set at 0 dB
using gates or expanders to silence microphones
Using Gates or Expanders to Silence Microphones
  • Insert a Gate or Expander on each Microphone Channel
  • Gates turn off the channel, while Expanders turn down the channel. Thus, Expanders are usually more graceful than Gates.
using gates or expanders to silence microphones cont
Using Gates or Expanders to Silence Microphones (cont.)
  • Threshold: Set so that the local person’s softest level is above the threshold.
  • Ratio (Expander): Set below 1:1, Try 0.5:1
  • Attack: Try between 2 to 10 ms
  • Release: Try between 50 to 200 ms
  • Makeup Gain (Expander): Set at 0 dB
for more information

For More Information

Dr. Brian K. Shepard

Coordinator of Music Technology Programs

OU School of Music

500 West Boyd Street, Room 138

Norman, OK 73019

(405) 325-0429

bkshepard@ou.edu

music.ou.edu/internet2