chapter 23. Health-Related Physical Fitness and Physical Activity. Francis X. Short. Health-Related Physical Fitness and Physical Activity. Health, physical fitness, and physical activity are related. Each can influence and be influenced by the others.
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chapter23 Health-Related Physical Fitness and Physical Activity Francis X. Short
Health-Related Physical Fitness and Physical Activity • Health, physical fitness, and physical activity are related. • Each can influence and be influenced by the others. • Figure 23.2 in the text demonstrates this relation (see next slide).
Relationship Among Physical Activity, Health, and Health-Related Fitness Reprinted, by permission, from J.P. Winnick and F.X. Short, 1999, The Brockport physical fitness test manual (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics), 10.
Physical Activity • Is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle resulting in a substantial increase in resting energy expenditure. • Categories include exercise, sport, training, play, dance, work, and domestic chores. • Patterns of physical activity are arranged by changing frequency, intensity, and duration.
Health • Is a human condition with physical, social, and psychological dimensions, each characterized on a continuum with positive and negative poles. • Positive health is associated with the capacity to enjoy life and withstand challenges; positive health is not merely the absence of disease. (continued)
Health (continued) • Negative health is associated with morbidity and, in the extreme, premature mortality. • Categories include physiological health (the organic well-being of the person) and functional health (the capability of the person to perform important daily activities).
Physical Fitness • Is defined as a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. • Categories include skill-related fitness and health-related fitness. • Components of skill-related fitness include power, speed, agility, balance, coordination, and reaction time. (continued)
Physical Fitness (continued) • Health-related fitness refers to those components of fitness that are affected by habitual physical activity and relate to health status. • Health-related fitness is defined as a state characterized by (a) an ability to perform and sustain daily activities and (b) demonstration of traits or capacities associated with a low risk of premature development of diseases and conditions related to movement.
Health-Related Physical Fitness Components of health-related fitness include aerobic functioning (including aerobic capacity), body composition, and musculo-skeletal functioning (including muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility).
Physical Fitness and Health • Acceptable levels of aerobic capacity are associated with a reduced risk (in adults) of hypertension, coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, some forms of cancer, and other health problems. • Obesity has been associated with diabetes, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, arthritis, and some forms of cancer. (continued)
Physical Fitness and Health (continued) • Obesity has also been linked to higher rates of all-cause mortality and to increased risk factors for heart disease in children. • Logical relations exist between musculoskeletal functioning and health. • Certain levels of strength, endurance, and flexibility are necessary to perform important activities of daily living (continued)
Physical Fitness and Health (continued) • With few exceptions, research that has compared the fitness performance of people with and without disabilities has found that the fitness levels of people with disabilities generally is below that of their peers without disabilities. • This suggests that people with disabili-ties have greater fitness-related health risks.
Physical Activity and Health-Related Physical Fitness • People with and without disabilities can improve their fitness through physical activity. • An important first step is to “personalize” fitness by asking the question, “Fitness for what purpose?” • Consider which components to target; which tests and standards will you use to monitor?
Patterns of Physical Activity • Frequency, duration, and intensity of various types of activity can be manipulated to yield gains in physical fitness. • Frequency = how often (e.g., days per week) • Duration = how long (e.g., minutes per session) • Intensity = how hard (e.g., heart rate, RPE, amount of resistance, perceived discomfort)
Physical Activity Recommendations for Fitness Aerobic functioning • See page 407 in the text for summary recommendations. • Adolescents: 3 to 5 days per week; 55 to 90% of maximum heart rate; 20 to 60 minutes per day • Children: less intensity but more frequency and duration
Aerobic Functioning Adjustments for youngsters with disabilities • Frequency: no change unless disability can be exacerbated by regular activity. • Intensity: reduce as a function of fitness level and adjust target heart rate zone for arms-only activity and for quadriplegia. • Duration: accumulate more intermittent activity or reduce total time, if necessary.
Physical Activity Recommendations Body composition • Weight-loss goals generally can be achieved by following aerobic functioning guidelines. • When weight loss is a higher priority than aerobic functioning, the recommended activity pattern is 30 to 60+ minutes per day of moderate activity conducted 4 to 7 days per week. • Expending 1,000 kcals per week is another goal.
Body Composition Adjustments for youngsters with disabilities . . . • Are similar to those adjustments made for aerobic functioning. • Obesity is often a problem for people with disabilities largely caused by inactivity. • Activity programs might need to be coordinated with the home to achieve frequency and duration guidelines and to monitor diet.
Physical Activity Recommendations Muscular strength and endurance • At least 1 set of 8 to 10 different exercises at least twice per week (with at least 1 day of rest between sessions) • 8 to 12 repetitions per set for strength • 12 to 15 repetitions per set for endurance • Intensity is a function of the amount of resistance that is overcome within the reps.
Muscular Strength and Endurance Adjustments for youngsters with disabilities . . . • Generally, few adjustments are necessary. • However, amount of resistance (intensity) often will be lower. • Some might benefit from a reduction in the number of exercises (down from 8 to 10). • Consult a physician for those with medical conditions.
Physical Activity Recommendations Flexibility and range of motion • At least three exercise sessions should be done each week; each stretch should be held for 10 to 30 seconds and repeated 3 to 5 times per session. • Intensity is a function of perceived mild discomfort during the stretch. • Stretching generally is more effective after the muscle tissue is warm.
Flexibility and Range of Motion Adjustments for youngsters with disabilities . . . • Active assisted stretching and PNF techniques might be used to complement active stretching. • Increased frequency (done 2 to 3 times daily) and durations (stretches that last 10 minutes or more) might be necessary for those with physical disabilities, including cerebral palsy.
Physical Activity and Health • Regular activity can reduce the risk of premature mortality and the risk of acquiring coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes. • Regular exercise also appears to reduce depression and anxiety, improve mood, and enhance ability to perform daily tasks. (continued)
Physical Activity and Health (continued) • CDC/ACSM joint recommendation: all Americans should accumulate at least 30 minutes of moderate-level physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week. • COPEC: there is less emphasis on intensity when applying the recommendations to children but greater emphasis on duration. (continued)
Physical Activity and Health (continued) • Implications for students with disabilities . . . • Strive for CDC/ACSM or COPEC recommendations. • Activity recommendations for health might be more attainable than activity recommendations for fitness (especially relative to intensity). • Measuring physical activity might be easier than measuring fitness in some youngsters.