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Great Lakes “101”. A primer on regional resource management systems and structures. Program Agenda. Overview of Great Lakes resources Organization for resource management Water quantity management Water quality management Biological resource management Summary. Program Agenda.

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slide1

Great Lakes “101”

A primer on regional resource management systems and structures

slide2

Program Agenda

  • Overview of Great Lakes resources
  • Organization for resource management
  • Water quantity management
  • Water quality management
  • Biological resource management
  • Summary
slide3

Program Agenda

  • Overview of Great Lakes resources
  • Organization for resource management
  • Water quantity management
  • Water quality management
  • Biological resource management
  • Summary
slide4

Overview of

Great Lakes Resources

  • Great Lakes cover 94,000 square miles and drain area about twice that size
  • Basin includes all or parts of eight states and two Canadian provinces
  • Population of 35 million (U.S. and Canada)
  • Contain about 9 quadrillion gallons of water, or 18 percent of the world’s freshwater supply
  • Coastline of 10,000 miles
slide6

St. Marys River

L. St Clair

L. Erie

L. St. Lawrence

210’

L. St. Francis

750’

L. St. Louis

L. Huron

Niagara R.

802’

St. Lawrence River

1330’

923’

L. Ontario

L. Michigan

L. Superior

slide7

Program Agenda

  • Overview of Great Lakes resources
  • Organization for resource management
  • Water quantity management
  • Water quality management
  • Biological resource management
  • Summary
slide8

Organization

  • Great Lakes resources are managed by two countries, eight states and two provinces
  • Three international agreements between the U.S. and Canada serve as a platform for managing most of the water resources
slide9

Organization

  • A system has been established to oversee and implement these agreements that involves Bi-National Organizations and the Governments.
  • These groups share common goals of the agreement, but have differing responsibilities.
slide10

International Joint Commission

  • Mandate:
    • Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909
    • Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
  • Mission:
    • Prevent and resolve disputes over transboundary, water use, water quality and air quality issues
  • Organization:
    • 3 Commissioners per country (appointed)
    • Staff in Washington, Ottawa and Windsor
    • Several boards, council and working groups
slide11

Great Lakes

Fishery Commission

  • Mandate:
    • U.S.- Canada Convention on Great Lakes Fisheries (1955)
  • Mission:
    • Research on fishery management
    • Eradication of sea lamprey
  • Organization:
    • 4 Commissioners per country
    • Staff in Ann Arbor, Michigan
    • Lake Committees and councils
slide12

Organization – Binational Organizations

  • Bi-National organizations (IJC and GLFC) were created to administer and/or provide oversight to these agreements
  • An extensive network of international and interagency boards and committees has been established under these agreements to provide advice, make decisions, and implement specific actions
slide14

Organization – The Parties

  • Although only the Federal governments of the U.S. and Canada signed the agreements, the term Parties is used to refer to the Federal, state, provincial and tribal agencies responsible for

their “on-the-ground” implementation

  • A number of interagency committees and working groups have been established to coordinate their actions and report on progress
slide16

Program Agenda

  • Overview of Great Lakes resources
  • Organization for resource management
  • Water quantity management
  • Water quality management
  • Biological resource management
  • Summary
slide17

Water Quantity

Management

  • Great Lakes are drinking water source to 40 million residents in U.S. and Canada
  • U.S. draws more than 40 billion gallons from Great Lakes a day (half for power production)
  • Levels and flows of Great Lakes are only partially controlled
  • Diversion of water from Great Lakes to other watersheds has been subject of litigation and legislation
boundary waters treaty
Boundary Waters Treaty
  • 1909 treaty between U.S. and Great Britain
  • Provides mechanism for prevention and resolution of water disputes
  • Created the International Joint Commission (IJC)
  • IJC established Boards of Control to manage flows and uses of water at key points
niagara river treaty
Niagara River Treaty
  • 1950 treaty between U.S. and Canada
  • Provides for diversion of Niagara River water for hydropower production
  • Tasked the IJC to oversee implementation of the Treaty
  • Created Int’l Niagara Committee to monitor flows and report to State Dept.
slide20

International Joint Commission

Boards of Control

  • Boards of 1-5 members each from U.S and Canada regulate flows in accordance with IJC approved regulation plan
    • Balance hydropower, navigation and other needs
    • Maintain levels within specified range
    • Measure flows, monitor control facilities, conduct studies
    • Install ice booms
  • Advise IJC and conduct public meetings
the parties implementation of treaty
The PartiesImplementation of Treaty
  • Structures that control flows are operated by federal government, state and provincial power authorities, and private hydropower
  • Committee on Basic H&H coordinates data collection and management
  • Other agreements related to, but separate from BWT
slide22

Other Agreements

Great Lakes Charter

  • Non-binding agreement between Great Lakes Governors and Premiers, created in 1985 to establish principles for water resource management of Great Lakes, Connecting Channels and tributaries
  • Section 1109 of WRDA 1986 gave each Governor veto power over any new diversions
  • Annex to Charter signed in 2001 pledges development of binding process for decisions on new diversions and consumptive uses
  • Water Management Working Group established to lead development of Annex 2001 process
slide23

Water Quantity ManagementCurrent Actions

  • IJC completing Reference Study to evaluate potential changes to the 1958-D regulation plan affecting levels and flows in Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River
  • IJC planning future Reference Study on Lake Superior regulation plan
  • Council of Great Lakes Governors have completed public review of second draft plan for regulating future diversions and consumptive uses
slide24

Program Agenda

  • Overview of Great Lakes resources
  • Organization for resource management
  • Water quantity management
  • Water quality management
  • Biological resource management
  • Summary
slide25

Water Quality

Management

  • Water quality has been severely degraded by pollution from industrial and municipal discharges, as well as agricultural and non-point sources
  • Toxic pollutants have caused fish tumors, consumption advisories, and other use impairments
  • Contaminated sediments in many tributaries and harbors contain a legacy of pollution from decades of abuse
slide26

Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement

  • Executive Agreement between US and Canada signed in 1972, amended in 1978 and 1987
  • Restore and protect Great Lakes ecosystem
  • Promote consistent standards and regulations between Parties
  • Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs) to reduce or eliminate loadings of critical pollutants
  • Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) to eliminate beneficial use impairments at Areas of Concern
slide28

International Joint Commission

Advisory Boards

  • Boards and Council created to advise Commissioners
  • Board/Council actions
    • Review progress in implementing Agreement
    • Conduct studies and develop guidance to support implementation of Agreement
    • Provide input to, and implement IJC biennial priorities
the parties implement agreement
The PartiesImplement Agreement
  • Interagency committees established to coordinate implementation and reporting
  • LaMPs led by EPA and EC with agency and stakeholder input
  • RAPs are locally driven with state or provincial lead
  • U.S. implementation largely from existing regulatory and restoration programs
slide30

Other Plans and Agreements

Great Lakes Restoration

  • Binational Toxics Strategy
    • EPA/Environmental Canada led plan for virtual elimination of persistent toxic substances
  • Great Lakes Regional Collaboration
    • U.S. initiative developed in response to Executive Order 13340
    • Collaboration composed of federal, state, tribal and municipal partners with nongovernmental observers
    • Strategy for protection and restoration of Great Lakes drafted by Teams aligned with eight issue areas identified by Governors
slide31

Water Quality ManagementCurrent Actions

  • Parties continue development and implementation of RAPs
  • Parties to update LaMPs in 2006
  • Parties to initiate review of the Water Quality Agreement (required every 6 years), which may result in an amendment
  • IJC focuses attention on priority issues on biennial basis (current priorities include chemicals and human health, land use and climate change impacts, and aquatic invasive species)
slide32

Program Agenda

  • Overview of Great Lakes resources
  • Organization for resource management
  • Water quantity management
  • Water quality management
  • Biological resource management
  • Summary
slide33

Biological Resource Management

  • Recreation in the Great Lakes is multi-billion dollar industry, with over 4 million registered recreation boats
  • Biological resources of the

Great Lakes have been stressed by pollution and development in coastal areas

  • Great Lakes fishery has been highly altered by introduction of non-native species, both intentionally and unintentionally
slide34

Convention on Great Lakes Fisheries

  • Executive Agreement between U.S. and Canada signed in 1955
  • Mechanism for planning fishery management, research, and sea lamprey control
  • Created Great Lakes Fishery Commission (GLFC)
slide35

Great Lakes Fishery Commission

Advisory Boards

  • Board and Committees created to advise Commission
  • Board/Committee actions
    • administer research
    • identify emerging issues
    • support Lakes Committees
  • GLFC facilitated development of Joint Strategic Plan
the parties implement convention
The PartiesImplement Convention
  • Day to day management of fisheries by state, provincial and tribal agencies
  • Actions integrated by Lake Committees
  • Joint Strategic Plan developed by state, provincial, tribal and federal agencies
slide37

Biological Resource ManagementCurrent Actions

  • Sea lamprey control activities continue by GLFC and Parties
  • Joint Strategic Plan being used to prioritize projects under Great Lakes Fishery & Ecosystem Restoration Program
slide38

Program Agenda

  • Overview of Great Lakes resources
  • Organization for resource management
  • Water quantity management
  • Water quality management
  • Biological resource management
  • Summary
slide39

Summary

Binational Management

  • Three binational agreements serve as platform for managing most Great Lakes resources
  • Binational commissions have structure of boards and committees that provide advice and make recommendations
  • Governments (Parties) are responsible for management actions and have structure of committees to coordinate efforts
slide40

Summary

Binational Management

  • Not all resources are fully addressed by the binational agreements:
    • invasive species (other than Sea Lamprey)
    • land use, urban sprawl
    • soil and water conservation
    • climate change
  • Management of physical, chemical and biological resources not integrated