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Ambient role playing games: towards a grammar of endlessness. Mark Eyles Roger Eglin. Advanced Games Research Group Department of Creative Technologies - Faculty of Creative and Cultural Industries.

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ambient role playing games towards a grammar of endlessness

Ambient role playing games:towards a grammar of endlessness

Mark Eyles

Roger Eglin

Advanced Games Research Group

Department of Creative Technologies - Faculty of Creative and Cultural Industries

If the seminal 1976 ambient music album Music for Airports became a 21st century ambient role playing game, what would it play like?
  • Games
  • Computer role playing games
  • Computer technology
  • Ambient intelligence
  • Pervasive games
  • Ambient music
  • Ambient games
  • Ambient Quest
  • Ambient games future
what is a computer game
What is a computer game?
  • An interactive entertainment played against, or with the aid of, computer generated characters or tokens in a computer generated environment.
  • A single player game has a series of interesting obstacles to overcome in order to gain rewards.
  • A multiplayer game has a series of interesting obstacles to overcome at the expense and/or with the help of other players to gain rewards.
computer game properties commitment to play
Computer game properties: Commitment to play
  • Learning curve
  • Play time
  • Civilization 2 vs. Tetris vs. Hangman
computer game properties location and movement
Computer game properties: Location and movement
  • Fixed (Console, PC, Set top box)
  • Mobile (Mobile phone, Nintendo DS)
  • Require movement
    • In one location (Football, Eye Toy)
    • In many locations (Alternate Reality Game)
pervasive games
Pervasive games
  • Pervasive games are defined as games that extend ‘gaming experiences out into the physical world’
    • (Waern, 2006)
  • I will return to pervasive games later and argue that ambient games are a type of pervasive game
role playing games
Role playing games
  • To suggest a definition of computer role playing games:
    • Look at the history of RPGs
    • Look at the game play in RPGs
    • These two approaches then inform a definition of role playing games
history of role playing games
History of role playing games
  • Pen and paper and computer role playing games formalise the playful role playing of childrens’ make believe worlds by adding a set of rules
  • This formalisation of role playing allows details to be shared, so that the game can be shared and seen to be played fairly according to an agreed set of rules
  • A key component of role playing games is stories
story telling
Story telling
  • Spoken
  • Pictures
    • Cave paintings
  • Written
    • Gilgamesh (around 2000 BC)
  • Moving images
    • Cinema (from the 1880s)
  • Interactive
    • Colossal Cave Adventure (1975ish)
table top war gaming 1
Table top war-gaming 1
  • Kriegspiel
    • 19th century
    • Lieutenant Johann von Reisswitz based on a design of his father Baron von Reisswitz
    • Players move tokens representing troops around a map, under the guidance of an umpire
    • Assured Prussian victories
table top war gaming 2
Table top war-gaming 2
  • Little Wars
    • A set of table top war-gaming rules
    • H. G. Wells - 1913.
    • Commenting on Kriegspiel:
      • ‘as it is played by the British Army, is a very dull and unsatisfactory exercise, lacking in realism, in stir and the unexpected, obsessed by the umpire at every turn, and of very doubtful value in waking up the imagination, which should be its chief function’. (Wells, 1913)
fantasy literature
Fantasy literature
  • J.R.R. Tolkein’s The Hobbit, 1937
  • The Lord of the Rings trilogy, 1954 to 1955
war gaming fantasy
War-gaming + Fantasy
  • Chainmail
    • First table top role playing game,1971
    • Gary Gygax and Jeff Perren
  • Dungeons and Dragons
    • Tactical Studies Rules (TSR), 1974
    • Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson
evolution of computer role playing games
Evolution of computer role playing games
  • Start with text adventures
      • ‘Advent’ or ‘Adventure’, written by William Crowther ‘around 1975 give or take a year’
      • Expanded by Don Woods to Colossal Cave Adventure in 1976
evolution of computer role playing games17
Evolution of computer role playing games
  • Zork, 1978, released by Infocom 1980
evolution of computer role playing games18
Evolution of computer role playing games
  • Add role playing
    • Richard Garriott’s 1979 Apple II game Akalabeth
evolution of computer role playing games19
Evolution of computer role playing games
  • Character attributes
    • Ultima 1, 1980, developed by Richard Garriott, published by Origin Systems Inc.
evolution of computer role playing games20
Evolution of computer role playing games
  • Influence of paper based role playing
evolution of computer role playing games21
Evolution of computer role playing games
  • Control a party of characters
  • Race and character class mechanisms
    • Wizardry: Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord, 1981, Sir Tech Software
evolution of computer role playing games22
Evolution of computer role playing games
  • Advances in technology…
    • Improvements in graphics
    • Increasing sophistication and complexity
    • Addition of 3D graphics to Multi User Dungeons

…but retaining core RPG mechanisms

evolution of computer role playing games23
Evolution of computer role playing games
  • Expansion into other milieu:
role playing gameplay mechanisms
Role playing gameplay mechanisms
  • Role playing game mechanisms have remained very similar
    • Compare Ultima, 1980, with Oblivion, 2006
role playing gameplay mechanisms25
Role playing gameplay mechanisms
  • Mechanisms commonly found in RPGs:
role playing gameplay mechanisms race
Role playing gameplay mechanisms - Race
  • The race selected affects the abilities and attributes available to the player’s character
  • For example in Morrowind:



Dark Elf

Wood Elf

High Elf






role playing gameplay mechanisms class
Role playing gameplay mechanisms - Class
  • Classes determine which profession the player’s character is able to pursue
  • For example in Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic:




Jedi Guardian

Jedi Consular

Jedi Sentinel

role playing gameplay mechanisms attributes
Role playing gameplay mechanisms - Attributes
  • Attributes give the abilities of a character
  • These core elements define what the character is capable of
role playing gameplay mechanisms skills
Role playing gameplay mechanisms - Skills
  • Skills are learned abilities that improve through use in the game
    • For example in Deus Ex:



Environmental Training




Weapons: Demolition

Weapons: Heavy

Weapons: Low-Tech

Weapons: Pistol

Weapons: Rifle

role playing gameplay mechanisms experience
Role playing gameplay mechanisms - Experience
  • Experience is normally measured in experience points that are earned by completing game objectives
  • When target numbers of experience points are achieved players are able to increase the attributes of their characters (‘Level up’)
role playing gameplay mechanisms story and quests
Role playing gameplay mechanisms – Story and quests
  • Role playing games normally contain long and involved stories delivered in a series of quests
role playing gameplay mechanisms combat
Role playing gameplay mechanisms - Combat
  • Real time ‘twitch’ combat
    • Deus Ex
  • Strategic ‘dice roll’ combat
    • Baldur’s Gate
  • Or sometimes a combination
    • Morrowind
role playing gameplay mechanisms resource management
Role playing gameplay mechanisms – Resource management
  • Role playing games typically contain many items
  • During games players make strategic choices about what they are going to need and what they can carry
    • See example on next slide (Diablo)
role playing gameplay mechanisms puzzles
Role playing gameplay mechanisms - Puzzles
  • Typical purposes of puzzles include:
    • Unlocking locations
    • Revealing plot
    • Gaining items
    • Defeating enemies
    • Helping non-player character ‘friends’
  • Puzzles frequently involve ‘using’ objects
    • The word ‘use’ is a catchall for activating or implementing or in some other way applying the particular properties of an object
role playing gameplay mechanisms exploration
Role playing gameplay mechanisms - Exploration
  • Players search the game world to discover useful items and clues
  • Environments may contain hidden objects and characters used to reveal story elements
  • Exploration also facilitates visual (and auditory) rewards for players
core features of rpgs
Core features of RPGs
  • Choice of player races
  • Choice of player classes
  • Player attributes
  • Player skill development
  • Experience points and levels
suggested definition of computer role playing games
Suggested definition of computer role playing games
  • In computer role-playing games players control one or more characters that gain ‘experience’ through the completion of game objectives. The ‘experience’ is manifested as player moderated changes in player character attributes (‘strength’, ‘intelligence’ and ‘luck’ for example) which allow the player character to evolve over the duration of the game.
  • Additional player character customization is facilitated through modification of character differentia such as race and class when initiating a player character ready for play and by game-play educed character modification during play, such as development and improvement of a skill by repeated use of that skill, or the spending of ‘skill points’ gained when levelling up.
  • The player character descriptors (attributes, differentia and game-play educed modifications) affect the in-game interactions between the player character, non-player characters and items in the game environment. The environment, objects, characters and interactions are effected in a virtual environment.
ambient technology
Ambient technology
  • This section starts with some assumptions about ambient games that will be made explicit later:
    • Ambient games are as ‘ignorable as they are interesting’ (Eno, 1978)
    • Consequently it should be possible for the player to ignore the game, if they wish, while still playing it
    • The game should physically surround them
  • First we will consider the growth of computer technology and its future
growth of computer technology45
Growth of computer technology
  • One computer – Many users
    • Charles Babbage designs a computer 1821
    • EDSAC 1 (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) 1949 the world’s “first complete and fully operational regular electronic digital stored program computer” (Jones, 2001)
growth of computer technology46
Growth of computer technology
  • One computer – One user
    • 1981 IBM introduced the ‘personal computer’

Digital Rainbow 100 1982

growth of computer technology47
Growth of computer technology
  • Many computers – One user
    • The current state of play
growth of computer technology48
Growth of computer technology
  • Ambient intelligent environments (the future)
  • Massively many intelligent computers – One user

Tom Cruise in Minority Report

(Everyone is a user, not just Tom Cruise)

ambient intelligence
Ambient intelligence
  • There are a number of different technologies that are enabling the development of ambient intelligence:
    • Interconnectivity
    • Artificial intelligence
    • The proliferation of computers
  • These technologies support ambient intelligence, which has:
    • Ubiquity
    • Transparency
    • Intelligence

(Aarts et al., 2001)

ambient intelligence ubiquity
Ambient intelligence - Ubiquity
  • A massive number of interconnected computers are embedded in the environment
  • ‘It is invisible, everywhere computing that does not live on a personal device of any sort, but is in the woodwork everywhere.’ (Weiser, 1996)
ambient intelligence transparency
Ambient intelligence - Transparency
  • Transparency indicates that ambient intelligence environments are invisible and in the background (Aarts et al., 2001)
ambient intelligence intelligence
Ambient intelligence - Intelligence
  • Intelligence relates to the interfaces and ways these interconnected computers respond and interact with people through user friendly interfaces.
ambient intelligence predictions
Ambient intelligence predictions
  • By 2010, when Intel expects that every chip it produces will have an antenna, there will be around 1,000 microprocessors per person
  • Harbor Research predicts that by 2010 worldwide revenues from network-related devices and associated services will be $800bn, around half of which will come from valued-added apps and services.

Department for Trade and Industry

ambient intelligence commercial future
Ambient intelligence commercial future

“Our vision for 2020 is that we will live in a world of interconnected, smart, distributed, responsive devices and services.”

ambient intelligence55
Ambient intelligence
  • Ambient intelligence environments offer a promising technology for creating pervasive games
  • We will now consider pervasive games and ambient games
pervasive games56
Pervasive games
  • Pervasive games are games which extend gaming experiences into the real world
    • They include locative games in which players move into the real world while playing and their position and actions in the real world affect, and are affected by, events in a virtual world

(Waern, 2006)

pervasive games57
Pervasive games
  • Location based games, especially using mobile technologies
    • Example: Uncle Roy All Around You
    • Street Players use handheld computers to search for Uncle Roy, using the map and incoming messages to move through the city.  Online Players cruise through a virtual map of the same area, searching for Street Players to help them find a secret destination.

pervasive games augmented reality
Pervasive games - Augmented reality
  • Overlaying computer information onto the real world
    • Example: ARQuake at the University of South Australia

pervasive games alternate reality
Pervasive games - Alternate reality

" obsession-inspiring genre that blends real-life treasure hunting, interactive storytelling, video games and online community...” (Borland, 2005)

  • A game in which events occurring online in a game world affect and are affected by game events in the real world
    • Example: Perplexcity

pervasive games60
Pervasive games
  • Ambient games are a type of pervasive game
  • The pervasive game examples mentioned vary from ambient games in
    • The intention of the games (ambient games create moods, they are not treasure hunts)
    • The commitment the player makes to the game (they do not have to put on back packs of computer equipment)
    • The level of attention required from the player
ambient music
Ambient music
  • Ambient music informs ambient games
  • Brian Eno coined the term ‘ambient music’ on his 1978 album Ambient 1: Music for Airports
  • In the sleeve notes of Music for Airports Brian Eno gives a definition of ambient music:
    • “Ambient Music must be able to accommodate many levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular; it must be as ignorable as it is interesting” (Eno, 1978)
ambient music63
Ambient music
  • “I wanted to make a kind of music that would actually reduce your focus on this particular moment in time that you happened to be in and make you settle into time a little bit better.” (Eno, 2003)
  • Think about the ways games might do this while accommodating many levels of attention and intervention
defining ambient games
Defining ambient games
  • Progress Quest - a game that requires minimal player intervention

( (Fredricksen, 2004))

defining ambient games65
Defining ambient games
  • All a player needs to do to play Progress Quest is set the game running
  • The game displays the player’s character’s role playing statistics and lists the completed quests and so on
  • The player need not intervene again as Progress Quest continues to play, all gameplay decisions are made automatically
defining ambient games66
Defining ambient games
  • Imagine a game similar to Progress Quest, call it Ambient Quest, in which, when the player starts the game, their actions in the real world affect progress in the game world
defining ambient games67
Defining ambient games
  • The Ambient Quest game world consists of a virtual environment containing quests to complete (achieved by defeating monsters at various locations)
defining ambient games68



Defining ambient games
  • The player chooses the degree to which they wish to manage events in the game
  • At one extreme the game runs itself, gathering data from the player’s actions in the real world and automatically applying this to the game world
  • At the other extreme the player can determine how the real world data is applied in the game world, micromanaging game interactions.
defining ambient games69



Defining ambient games
  • The player may choose to manipulate their actions in the real world to progress more successfully in Ambient Quest
  • Alternatively they may ignore the consequences of their actions in the real world and play without consciously changing their behaviour
defining ambient games70
Defining ambient games
  • Ambient Quest should be ‘as ignorable as it is interesting’ (Eno, 1978)
  • Players can dip in and out of the game
  • The game is persistent, running in the background, creating a mood, while players are engaged in other activities
  • They may respond to the game by modifying their behaviour to affect their game progress
defining ambient games71
Defining ambient games
  • Ambient games may be controlled by everyday actions (i.e. not using a dedicated game input device, mouse or keyboard) in everyday, real world environments that have gameplay consequences in a virtual game world
  • These game play environments may be facilitated by ambient intelligent technologies that embed the game transparently in the environment
defining ambient games72
Defining ambient games
  • Ambient games allow the player to have experiences that range from superficially shallow to profoundly deep
  • The player is able to choose how they focus their attention on the game, and can alter their degree of attention at will
  • As with Music for Airports an ambient game should accommodate many levels of attention, many levels of involvement or intervention, creating a mood in the environment
defining ambient games73
Defining ambient games
  • The involvement of the player in the game is not determined by the game
  • This is not a ‘push’ technology, but is determined by the player who can choose when to ‘pull’ game experiences from the ambient game
a definition of ambient games
A definition of ambient games
  • ‘Ambient games are designed to create a mood in an environment through game interactions with players whose behaviours, mediated by an ambient intelligent environment or similar transparent game interface, create changes in a virtual game world.
  • Ambient games are persistent and are as interesting as they are ignorable, facilitating a wide variation in player determined levels of involvement, from unaware to intensely attentive play.
  • In ambient computer role-playing games player behaviours affect one or more characters that gain ‘experience’, and other character customizations, through the completion of game objectives in a virtual world.’
ambient quest single player ambient game simulation
Ambient Quest – single player ambient game simulation
  • Distance walked by players determines progress in the virtual game world
  • Players may engage more or less with the game by
    • Altering, or not altering, distance walked
    • Choosing moves for their avatars or letting the game move them automatically
  • The game is ‘always on’
ambient quest single player ambient game simulation77
Ambient Quest – single player ambient game simulation
  • Ambient Quest is designed to create a mood in the playing environment, overlaying a sense fantasy adventure on the real world and giving a hint of other hidden worlds
future ambient games
Future ambient games
  • Imagine a job which involves fairly repetitive actions which are not in themselves especially rewarding.
  • Could an ambient game be designed that ran alongside this work and brought an element of playfulness to the job?
future ambient games79
Future ambient games
  • Ambient Shelf Stacking Game
    • Imagine an ambient game that drew its data from supermarket shelf stacking
    • Employees belong to different teams that are represented by competing avatars in a virtual world
future ambient games80
Future ambient games
  • Co-operative gaming
    • Ambient Garden Game
      • Imagine an ambient game in which players are together trying to nurture the plants in a virtual garden through their actions in the real world
  • Interpersonal relationships
    • Ambient Relationships Game
      • Imagine a Sims like game where the players’ real world actions affect relationships of avatars in a Second Life like virtual world
future ambient games81
Future ambient games
  • Women playing ambient games
    • Ambient games offer interesting possibilities for designing games that are tailored to appeal to women (who are not already gamers)
    • Opportunities for co-operative play
    • Opportunities for activity based game play (in preference to goal orientated gameplay)
    • Ambient games do not place importance on achieving high scores or penalising players for errors

(Graner Ray, 2004)

final thoughts
Final thoughts
  • Game players may play even when they are not playing!
  • Embed mood and behaviour altering game playing in the world around us
  • Open ended, endless nature of play points towards new mechanisms and ways of playing games that forces us to consider new grammars of play
final thought
Final thought

A sense of otherworldliness:

‘It is another world entirely and is enclosed within this one; it is in a sense a universal retreating mirror image of this one, with a peculiar geography … composed of a series of concentric rings, which as one penetrates deeper into the other world, grow larger … each perimeter of this series of concentricities encloses a larger world within’

Little Big by John Crowley

(Crowley, 1981)


Ambient role playing games:towards a grammar of endlessness

Mark Eyles

Roger Eglin

Advanced Games Research Group

Department of Creative Technologies - Faculty of Creative and Cultural Industries