Africa. Ashley J Erin A Kristy N Tiffany L Stephanie H Katie M. Pre-History Before the Rise of Complex Civilizations. Humans evolved over several million years from primates in Africa 40,000 years ago - Neanderthals had modern human bodies with ape-like faces
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(Old Stone Age)
To 10,000 years ago
Evolution of humans
2 million years ago – 1st appearance of crude stone tools
1 – 1.5 million years ago – began setting fires
Homo habilis, Homo erectus
(New Stone Age)
10,000 – 4,000 years ago
Agricultural Revolution – began domesticating plants & animals
Began cooking foods
Ecological crisis from over-hunting
2575-2134 BCE Old Kingdom Egypt
2134-2040 BCE First Intermediate Period
2040-1640 BCE Middle Kingdom Egypt
1640-1532 BCE Second Intermediate Period
1532-1070 BCE New Kingdom Egypt
2300 – 500 BCE
(1000 BCE – 600 CE)
300 BCE – 1100 CE
Post Classical Era steppes, tropical savannah, tropical rainforest, & temperate highlands
(600 – 1450 CE)
Ghana steppes, tropical savannah, tropical rainforest, & temperate highlands6th – 13th Centuries CE
Trade: The trade of gold, and precious natural resources such as myrrh tied all the civilizations of Africa together, and also connected them to the other ancient civilizations of the world like Asia and The Mediterranean.
Religion: The Civilizations in Africa from Egypt and Nubia to Ghana and sub-Saharan Africa all had major and devout beliefs in the afterlife and worship of many gods. These beliefs brought many similarities to their culture and the way the people lived.
Impact of Geography on Civilization: Africa had a very diverse geography - From the arid desserts to the tropical rainforests and the temperate highlands. The people all adapted to their environment and used it to their advantage whether it is for travel or communication.