Ungulates and subungulates
1 / 160

Ungulates and Subungulates - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Ungulates and Subungulates. Subungulates Proboscidea elephants Hyracoidea hyraxes Sirenia dugongs and manatees. Ungulates Perrisodactyla odd toed ungulates horses, tapirs, and rhinos Artiodactyla even toed ungulates. Ungulata. Subungulates.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Ungulates and Subungulates' - Gideon

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Ungulata l.jpg







dugongs and manatees



odd toed ungulates

horses, tapirs, and rhinos


even toed ungulates


Subungulates l.jpg

  • This seems to be an odd grouping of organisms. However, it is not by accident, and does not represent another ‘garbage’ group.

  • Proboscideans, Hyraxes, and Sirenians are all derived from Condylarthrans, that evolved in the Paleocene about 65mya.

Subungulates4 l.jpg

  • The Paenungulata was one group within the Condylarthra, and by the Eocene of Africa, they gave rise to the Proboscidea, Sirenia, and Hyracoidea.

  • If that is the case, you would expect some morphological similarities between the groups.

Subungualta l.jpg

  • They all lack clavicles.

  • They all have short nails on their digits.

  • Females have 2 pectoral mammae (Hyraxes have 2 inguinal pairs as well).

  • All females have a bicornuate uterus.

  • All males have abdominal testes and have no baculum.

  • All are non-ruminating, hind gut fermenting, herbivores.

  • All have a cecum.

  • Elephants and Sirenia have horizontal molariform tooth replacement.

Subungulata l.jpg

  • Proboscideans and Sirenians were much more diverse during the Oligocene and Miocene.

  • Their future does not look promising.

Proboscidea l.jpg

  • There is but 1 family (Elephantidae) and 2 species: African elephant - Loxodonta africana, and Asian elephant - Elaphas maximus.

  • African elephants are much larger than Indian (Asian) elephants. The teeth differ, Africans have higher shoulders, larger ears, and a more complex trunk.

Proboscidea9 l.jpg

  • Reproduction is not easy

    • Females are sexually mature by 9 to 12 years, with peak reproductive value between 25 and 45 years. Gestation is 22 months, but estrus lasts only 2 to 4 days, with about 4 years between estrus events.

    • Copulation is no simple deal either.

    • There is sexual dimorphism, and young small males generally do not reproduce.

Proboscideans l.jpg

  • Size of the males tusks seems to be an important character for reproduction. African elephant females look for a minimum tusk length, and will not mate with ‘short’ males even if no ‘long’ males are available. This has some implications for the ivory industry.

Proboscideans12 l.jpg

  • African elephant males weigh up to 7500kg, while Indian elephants weigh about 4500kg.

  • They exhibit indeterminant growth.

  • They have graviportal limbs, and are capable of one gait only.

Proboscideans13 l.jpg

  • Feldhammer claims that large size in elephants is a consequence of ‘competition’ with other herbivores.

    • Is this the most parsimonious explanation?

    • Does it reduce the importance of predation?

    • What about the cost of transport?

  • What does large size mean for an endotherm?

Proboscideans14 l.jpg

  • Elephants are inefficient herbivores, and require large home ranges. They are usually found in groups. Thus, as they move long distances each day, they are capable of significant habitat modification.

  • Consider what it means to be so large. How is it possible that 50% of what passes through the gut of an elephant is undigested?

Proboscideans16 l.jpg

  • The trunk of elephants is actually part of the upper lip and the nostrils.

  • It is prehensile, and is essential since the animal can not reach the ground with its mouth.

  • It is used to manipulate food, suck up water (and then spray water into the mouth), and suck up dust and mud as well.

Proboscideans17 l.jpg

  • Dental formula is 1/0, 0/0, 3/3, 3/3 = 28.

  • Tusks are dentine (with only the tip covered in enamel).

  • Tooth replacement is horizontal, they are worn and replaced from the rear. Note: although they have 6 molariform teeth in each jaw, only one is functional at any time.

Proboscideans19 l.jpg

  • Elephants were once much more diverse than they are today.

  • In the Pleistocene they were in Europe and North America. In fact, until just recently, there were 2 species in N. America at the same time, mastadons (Mammut americanus), and Mammoths.

Proboscideans20 l.jpg

  • Oldest fossils are from the Eocene of Africa

  • We have fossil evidence from Asia, Europe, Africa, and N. America.

  • Moeritheriids were relatively small (1m) in Africa during the Eocene and Oligocene, while Deinotheriids were in Asia and Europe from the Miocene to the Pliocene.

Proboscideans21 l.jpg

  • The Deinotheriids had weird tusks, based on the lower incisors rather than upper.

  • Gomphotheriidae were contemporaries, and had tusks in upper and lower jaws.

  • Mammutidae were the mastodons from the early Miocene.

  • Stegodontidae were from the mid-Miocene.

Proboscideans24 l.jpg

  • Only the Elephantidae persist today.

  • The genus Primelephas from the late Miocene/early Pliocene is probably ancestral to modern elephants as well as the Wooly Mammoths.

Hyracoidea l.jpg

  • There are 5 species of rock hyraxes, and 3 species of bush hyraxes, all inhabiting rocky habitats in Africa and the middle east.

  • Were first thought to be rodents, but are clearly subungulates.

  • They are not ruminants, but have a large cecum as well as a smaller paired cecum.

Hyraxes l.jpg

  • Have a mid-dorsal gland surrounded by light hair.

  • They have unique pads on the feet, which function as suction cups on rocky surfaces. Glands on the feet provide moisture for ‘suction’

  • Toes have hoof-like nails (except 2nd on rear, which has a grooming claw).

Hyraxes31 l.jpg

  • They have no canines, and have a diastemma, hence the early confusion with rodents.

  • Upper incisors are pointed and triangular with no enamel on posterior.

  • Unlike elephants and sirenians, dentition is not replaced horizontally.

Modern hyrax vs megalohyrax from the oligocene note the diastemma in the modern form l.jpg
Modern Hyrax vs. Megalohyrax from the Oligocene. Note the diastemma in the modern form.

Rock hyrax procavia capensis l.jpg
Rock Hyrax: Procavia capensis

Rock hyrax procavia capensis35 l.jpg
Rock Hyrax: Procavia capensis

Rock hyrax procavia capensis36 l.jpg
Rock Hyrax: Procavia capensis

Hyraxes37 l.jpg

  • Fossils are known from the Eocene of Europe and Africa.

  • There is always the speculations that the diversity of Hyraxes suffered as a consequence of competition with ungulates. More about this later.

Sirenians l.jpg

  • These are the dugongs and manatees.

  • 2 families: monotypic Dugongidae from western Pacific, and Trichechidae (3 species) form the Atlantic.

  • Essentially tropical, feeding on aquatic vegetation.

  • Poor thermoregulatory abilities and low metabolic rates - hence warm waters.

Sirenian morphology l.jpg
Sirenian Morphology

  • Large fusiform bodies - valvular nostrils, no pinnae, horizontal tail, no external hind-limbs, and flipper-like fore-limbs.

  • Dense bone to facilitate negative bouyancy.

  • Lungs run nearly length of body to even out bouyant forces.

  • Teeth replaced horizontally.

Dugongs vs manatees l.jpg
Dugongs vs. Manatees

  • Dugongs eat aquatic vegetation which is much softer than that consumed by manatees.

  • Feldhammer uses competition to explain distribution of species.

Sirenian fossil history l.jpg
Sirenian Fossil History

  • There were once at least 20 genera of Sirenians.

  • There are Eocene sirenians from india, Europe, and N. America (Protosiren).

  • Eocene sirenians are unique in that thay have a fifth premolar.

Dusisiren miocene sea cow l.jpg
Dusisiren: Miocene sea cow.

Dugong vs manatee deflected rostrum in dugong is adaptation to bottom feeding l.jpg
Dugong vs Manatee: Deflected rostrum in Dugong is ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Perissodactyla and artiodactyla l.jpg
Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Both forms of modern ungulates are digitigrade.

  • Teeth are usually hypsodont.

  • Limbs operate in a single plane, and are designed for cursorial locomotion.

  • Calcaneum usually does not articulate with the fibula.

Slide58 l.jpg
A) Tapir ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.B) RhinoC) HorseD) PigE) DeerF) CamelG) PronghornCalcaneum is shaded and articulates w/ Astragalus (H)

Perissodactyla l.jpg
Perissodactyla ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Horses, Tapirs, and Rhinos.

  • Odd toed ungulates, with the 3rd digit bearing most of the weight (Mesaxonic).

  • Teeth are usually hypsodont and lophodont.

  • Horses and tapirs have upper incisors, rhinos generally do not.

  • Stomach is simple, but they have a cecum. Gut retention times are half that of ruminating artiodactyls. Thus, only about 70% as efficient.

Malayan tapir l.jpg
Malayan tapir ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Indian rhino l.jpg
Indian Rhino ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Perissodactyla fossil history l.jpg
Perissodactyla: Fossil History ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • The Condylarthra are ancestral to the Perissodactyla, as well as the Artiodactyla, Proboscidea, Sirenia, and Cetaceans.

  • It is not necessarily true that the Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla are monophyletic.

  • Based on 67 hard and soft morphological characters, we can propose the following:

Ungulate evolution l.jpg
Ungulate Evolution ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Note the implications:

    • Closest relatives of the perissodactyls are the cetaceans.

    • Mammals invaded wate completely at least twice independently (Cetceans and Sirens).

    • Note the close relationship between hyraxes, elephants, and sirenians.

Perissodactyl evoltuion l.jpg
Perissodactyl Evoltuion ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Originally 14 families at their peak in the Eocene.

  • By the end of the Oligocene there were only 4 families.

  • They were the dominant ‘medium to large’ herbivores of the Tertiary.

  • Both the Brontotheres and Chalicotheres went extinct.

Chalico there went extinct in the pleistocene note the fore limb dominance l.jpg
Chalico-there: went extinct in the Pleistocene ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.Note the fore-limb dominance.

Tapirs l.jpg
Tapirs ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Origin and early differentiation in the Paleocene

  • Heptodon is one of the earliest, and comes from the Eocene of Wyoming.

  • Modern Tapirus is remarkably similar to Heptodon, but bigger. Both have 4 toes in front and 3 in rear, both have ulna and fibula complete and unfused.

Tapirs69 l.jpg
Tapirs ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Both Heptodon and Taprius have complete dentition w/ a small diastemma; upper canine is reduced and lateral incisor is caniniform.

  • Upper molars have 3 lophs, the lower molear have 2 transverse lophs (as in Rhinos)

Malayan tapir70 l.jpg
Malayan tapir ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Tapir teeth sort of l.jpg
Tapir teeth - sort of ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Tapirs72 l.jpg
Tapirs ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Compare the teeth of Tapirus with those of the rhino

Black rhino l.jpg
Black Rhino ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Tapirs74 l.jpg
Tapirs ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • This similarity in structure is one of the reasons why tapirs and rhinos are generally considered to share a common ancestor.

  • The cladogram for Perissodactyla lumps tapirs and rhinos, with horses as the outlying sister group.

Tapirs75 l.jpg
Tapirs ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Tapirs persist in S. America and Central America, and in Southeast Asia. Can you explain this distribution?

  • Hyrachyus (Family Hyrachyidae) may be transitional between tapirs and rhinos. It was abundant in the eocene of n. America and Europe.

  • Hyracodontids and Amynodontids were abundant in the Eocene and oligocene of N. America and Asia.

Hyracodontids l.jpg
Hyracodontids ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • About 12 genera

  • Moderate size

  • Slender limbs like horses w/ light builds.

  • Cursorial

  • incisors were spatulate (primitive) and equal sized.

  • Canines were moderate size.

Hyracodontids78 l.jpg
Hyracodontids ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • In the Oligocene, from Hyracodont lineage, came a series of gigantic hornless rhinos in the subfamily Indricotherinae

  • Indricotherinae ranged from central Asia to China.

  • Indricotherium was the largest land mammal to ever live.

Hyracodontids79 l.jpg
Hyracodontids ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Indricotherium was 5.4m tall at the shoulders, had a long neck and a skull which was 1.3m long.

  • Could reach vegetation 8m above the ground.

  • Had a probable weight of 30 tons, 4.5 times greater than Loxodonta, and about twice as great as the largest Mammoth.

Amynodontids l.jpg
Amynodontids ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • About 10 genera

  • Large heavy bodies

  • Short stocky limbs

  • Short faces

  • Prominent canine tusks.

  • The bulk of the Amynodontid radiation was over by the close of the Oligocene.

Rhinocerotidae l.jpg
Rhinocerotidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Hyracodontids during the Oligocene obtained a unique dental variation: chisel like I1 and tusk like I2. This formed the basis of a 2nd radiation… the Rhinocerotidae.

Rhinocerotidae82 l.jpg
Rhinocerotidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • About 50 genera

  • N. America, Eurasia, and Africa from the Miocene to Pleistocene.

  • Rhinocerotids included wooly rhinos and rhinos w/ horns (Elasmotherium) as long as 2m.

  • Wooly rhinos show up as cave paintings by palaeolithic man.

Rhinocerotidae83 l.jpg
Rhinocerotidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Elasmotherium’s horn was not nasal like most, but originated on the forehead. It had no incisors.

  • Today, rhinos occur only in India, Java, Sumatra, and Africa.

Black rhino84 l.jpg
Black Rhino ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Black rhino85 l.jpg
Black Rhino ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Black rhino86 l.jpg
Black Rhino ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Black rhino87 l.jpg
Black Rhino ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Chalicotheres l.jpg
Chalicotheres ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • From the Eocene on in N. America, Eurasia, and Africa.

  • Simple premolars and bunolophodont molars.

  • Probably a bipedal browser.

  • Had long forearms and hooked claws - very un-ungulate like.

Chalico there went extinct in the pleistocene note the fore limb dominance89 l.jpg
Chalico-there: went extinct in the Pleistocene ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.Note the fore-limb dominance.

Titanotheres brontotheres l.jpg
Titanotheres (=Brontotheres) ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • From the early Eocene to early Oligocene of N. America and eastern Asia.

  • Medium to very large size.

  • Probably succeeded in Asia by Indricothere Rhinos.

  • Had graviportal limbs and nasal horns which were probably covered by skin.

Horses l.jpg
Horses ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Evolution of horses has been used as best example of gradualism.

  • Over 55 million years, the progression from Eohippus to Equus has involved:

    • Increase in size from small lamb size to present size.

    • Reduction of toes from 3 to 1.

    • Increased complexity of enamel pattern on molars.

Horses93 l.jpg
Horses ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Eohippus (= Hyracotherium)

  • Eocene of N. America, W. Europe, and E. Asia.

  • 4 toes fromt, 3 rear.

  • Horses died out (Together w/ horse-like Tapirs) in W. Eeurope by the Oligocene. Also died out in Asia by this time.

Horses94 l.jpg
Horses. ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • In Oligocene, N. America horses are Mesohippus and Miohippus.

  • Sheep size, 3 toes w/ middle digit largest.

  • Snout elongating.

  • Premolars beginning to look like molars w/ lophs and lophids.

Horses95 l.jpg
Horses. ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • By Miocene, Anchitherium had split off from other N. American horses, and migrated through Europe and Asia.

  • By the end of the Miocene, forest-dwelling Hypohippus migrated into China.

  • From Oligocene Anchitheres came the Miocene Parahippus, a precursor to mid-miocene Merychippus.

Horses96 l.jpg
Horses. ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Merychippus is first grazer horse.

  • True hypsodont cheek teeth, elaborately lophed and had cementum.

  • Had fused ulna/radius and tibia/fibula to improve gallop and minimize twisting of legs.

  • All later horses evolved from Merychippus.

Horses97 l.jpg
Horses ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • First successful descendent of Merychippus were the Hipparionines, which included as many as 6 lineages. They invaded the old world several times and were finally extinct by the late Pleistocene.

  • In the late Miocene, Merychippus was replaced by Pliohippus, the 1st one-toed horse.

Horses98 l.jpg
Horses ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Pliohippus gave rise to Equus during the Pleistocene of N. America, from where it radiated to the old world.

  • Equus became extinct in the N. American recent. Why?

Artiodactyla l.jpg
Artiodactyla ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • 1/3 of all mammalian genera are Herbivores. Of these, 50% are Artiodactyla or Perissodactyla.

  • Origin is probably I the Palaeocene.

  • Today, there are 6 genera of Perissodactyls vs. about 80 genera of Artiodactyls.

  • Whereas perissodactyls were once most diverse, artiodactyls now have significant edge. Why?

Artiodactyls l.jpg
Artiodactyls ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Currently there are 12 famillies of herbivores, there are 24 extinct families.

  • Origin is probably in northern continents with movements into southern ones (except Australia).

Horns antlers ossicones l.jpg
Horns, Antlers, Ossicones. ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Diacodexis early eocene artiodactyl l.jpg
Diacodexis ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.: early Eocene artiodactyl.

Artiodactyls105 l.jpg
Artiodactyls ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Primary axis of support is between 3rd and 4th toes (paraxonic).

  • 2nd and 5th digits are absent or non-functional.

  • Pigs (Suiformes) are plantigrade, while ruminants are digitigrade (Unguligrade).

  • Dentition varies from bunodont and brachydont to solenodont and hypsodont.

Artiodactyls106 l.jpg
Artiodactyls ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Upper incisors and canines are reduced or absent.

  • Suids and Tayasuids have non-ruminating stomachs while more derived families have 4 chambered ruminating stomachs.

Suiformes suidae l.jpg
Suiformes: Suidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • 5 genera and 16 species.

  • Simple stomachs and bunodont teeth, large ever-growing canines.

  • Cartilaginous disk on snout.

  • Endemic to Europe, Africa, and Asia. Introduced almost everywhere else.

Slide109 l.jpg
Pig ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Warthog babirusa and wild boar l.jpg
Warthog, Babirusa, and Wild Boar. ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Suiformes tayassuidae l.jpg
Suiformes: Tayassuidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Least specialized of the suiformes.

  • Peccaries - legs are thin and feet end in hooves. Upper canines point downward rather than upward as in pigs.

  • Restricted to the New World, from the desert southwest to Argentina.

Peccaries l.jpg
Peccaries ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Suiformes hippopotamidae l.jpg
Suiformes: Hippopotamidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • 2 species only.

  • Little or no hair, also lack sweat glands for thermoregulation.

  • They do have glandular skin that produces pigmented secretions to protect against sunlight.

  • Bunodont cheek-teeth, ever-growing tusk-like lower canines and incisors, with alveoli for canines anterior to those for incisors.

Hippos l.jpg
Hippos ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Not ruminants, but septa in stomach increase gut retention times.

  • H. amphibius grazes on land at night fo rup to 6 hrs.

  • Hexaprotodon liberiensis is less aquatic.

  • Both are African.

Hippo note elevated eyes and nares l.jpg
Hippo: note elevated eyes and nares. ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Hippos116 l.jpg
Hippos ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Pigmy hippo l.jpg
Pigmy hippo ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Tylopoda camelidae l.jpg
Tylopoda: Camelidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • North American origin in Eocene, extinct here by the Pleistocene.

  • 3 genera and 6 species

  • Dromedaries, Bactracians, Quanaco, Llama, Alpaca, and Vicugna.

  • Small head, long snout, cleft upper lip, long thin neck, long legs w/ canon bone.

  • Upper and lower canines, and selenodont cheek teeth.

  • Toes spread out under load.

Tylopoda camelidae119 l.jpg
Tylopoda: Camelidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Outer spatulate upper incisor is retained in adults.

  • 3-chambered stomachs and a cecum.

  • Dromedary was once throughout the Middle East, but now exists only in domestication.

  • Bactracians were once throughout Asia, but are now restricted to the Gobi.

Tylopoda camelidae120 l.jpg
Tylopoda: Camelidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • Vicunas and Llamas are restricted to S. America.

  • Camelids consume plants w/ high salt content, foods avoided by other grazers.

  • Unique gaits in Camels.

  • Heat and water strategies - the hump is not what you think.

Dromedary l.jpg
Dromedary ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Dromedary122 l.jpg
Dromedary ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Dromedary123 l.jpg
Dromedary ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Llama l.jpg
Llama ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Lama glama l.jpg
Lama glama ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Lama glama126 l.jpg
Lama glama ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Lama glama127 l.jpg
Lama glama ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Lama glama128 l.jpg
Lama glama ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Ruminantia tragulidae l.jpg
Ruminantia: Tragulidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • 3 genera and 4 species of Chevrotains in Africa and Asia.

  • Most underived of all ruminants, once had a worldwide distribution.

  • Mouse deer is smallest artiodactyl at 2.5kg.

  • No antlers, but curved upper canines.

  • 3-chambered ruminating stomach.

Tragulus napu l.jpg
Tragulus napu ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Ruminantia giraffidae l.jpg
Ruminantia: Giraffidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • 2 genera and 2 species: Giraffa camelopardalis and Okapia johnstoni.

  • Small brachydont teeth, prehensile tongues, ossicones.

  • Consider circulatory problems of great height.

Giraffa camelopardalis incisors l.jpg
Giraffa camelopardalis incisors ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Ruminantia moschidae l.jpg
Ruminantia: Moschidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • 4 species of musk deer.

  • Lack antlers, but have curved canines.

  • Distributed from Siberia to the Himalayas.

Musk deer l.jpg
Musk deer ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Musk deer136 l.jpg
Musk deer ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Hydropotes inermis water deer f l.jpg
Hydropotes inermis: water deer F ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Hydropotes inermis water deer m l.jpg
Hydropotes inermis: water deer M ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Hydropotes l.jpg
Hydropotes ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Hydropotes140 l.jpg
Hydropotes ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Hydropotes141 l.jpg
Hydropotes ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Cervidae l.jpg
Cervidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • 16 genera and 42 extant species, ranging in size from the pudu at 8kg to Alces alces at 800kg.

  • Absent only from sub-Saharan Africa and Antarctica, were introduced to Australia and New Zealand.

  • Sexually dimorphic - males have antlers, females (except caribou) do not. Why?

Caribou l.jpg
Caribou ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Moose cow and calf l.jpg
Moose cow and calf ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Moose bull l.jpg
Moose bull ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Mule deer l.jpg
Mule deer ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

White tail l.jpg
White tail ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

White tail nasals l.jpg
White tail nasals ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Ruminantia antilocapridae l.jpg
Ruminantia: Antilocapridae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • 1 genus, 1 species.

  • Restricted to N. America and Mexico.

  • Unique horns.

  • Forage on Artemisia tridenta.

Pronghorn l.jpg
Pronghorn ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Pronghorn nasals l.jpg
Pronghorn nasals ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Pronghorn153 l.jpg
Pronghorn ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Ruminantia bovidae l.jpg
Ruminantia: Bovidae ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

  • 45 genera and 137 species.

  • 4 chambered ruminating stomachs.

  • All have 2 horns except the the four-horned antelope.

  • Worldwide distributin except S. America and Australia. Why?

African buffalo l.jpg
African buffalo ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Bush buck l.jpg
Bush Buck ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Caribou157 l.jpg
Caribou ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Eland l.jpg
Eland ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Greater kudu l.jpg
Greater Kudu ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.

Nyala l.jpg
Nyala ‘adaptation’ to bottom feeding.