Implementation of Basel Convention and other International Chemicals/ Wastes Management Instruments in Pakistan Syed Zaheer Ahmed Gillani Executive Director/National Project Manager National Multilateral Environment Agreements Secretariat Ministry of Environment Government of Pakistan Islamabad, Pakistan
Scheme of Presentation • Basel Convention and other International instruments signed and ratified by Pakistan. • Synergy and Mutual Reinforcement of chemicals related Conventions. • Main features of Basel Convention. • General obligations under the Basel Convention. • National definition of waste and hazardous wastes • Agencies responsible for implementation of Basel Convention in Pakistan. • National Waste Management Legislation. • Defining ship recycling. • Ship Recycling as a Natural Resources and Energy Conservation Activity. • Ship Recycling as a Potential threat to Health and Environment. • Ship Recycling Confronted with Hazardous Chemicals and Wastes. • Safe Recycling of Ships. • Steps by Government of Pakistan for Safe Recycling of Ships. • Hong Kong Convention and control of hazardous materials.
Pakistan an active member of the global community fighting the menace of pollution caused by chemicals and wastes.
Basel Convention History • 1989 Adoption of the Basel Convention • 1992 Entry into force, 5th May 1992 • 2010 173 Parties to the Convention • 1992 Pakistan signed the Convention. • 1994 Pakistan ratified the Convention.
Basel Convention Main Pillars of Basel Convention • Regulation of the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes 2. Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes (Disposal), including POPs waste
The Environmentally Sound Management (ESM) General Obligations for the Parties (Art. 4) • Generation of hazardous wastes is reduced to a minimum. • Availability of adequate disposal facilities is ensured. • Transboundary movement is reduced to a minimum.
The Environmentally Sound Management (ESM) (contd) General Obligations for the Parties (Art. 4) • Management of wastes in an environmentally sound manner, including disposal • Co-operate in activities with other Parties in order to improve ESM and to prevent illegal traffic
Implementation of Basel Convention in Pakistan • National definition of waste and hazardous wastes: • Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997 defines “Hazardous waste" as . . • Waste which is or which contains a hazardous substance, and includes hospital waste and nuclear waste.
Implementation of Basel Convention in Pakistan Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997 defines “Hazardous substance" as a) A substance or mixture of substances, other than a pesticide ,which, by reason of its chemical activity is • toxic, • explosive, • flammable, • corrosive, • Radioactive, Or from other characteristics causes, or is likely to cause, directly or in combination with other matters, an adverse environmental effect;
Implementation of Basel Convention in Pakistan (b) any substance which may be prescribed as a hazardous substance. • The Government has reduced import duty on pollution abatement equipment from 30% to 10%.
Implementation of Basel Convention in Pakistan Contd. . . . • Agencies responsible for day-to-day management of trans-boundary movements (imports, transit and exports) of substances : • Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA), • Provincial EPAs • Federal Board of Revenue (FBR), • Ministry Of Commerce • Ministry of Environment (MOE).
Implementation of Basel Convention in Pakistan Contd. . . . • The hazardous waste banned/controlled under Basel Convention are also banned/controlled under the import policy of Pakistan • The export and Import of hazardous waste is banned, while the transit is allowed with the condition that the containers will not be opened during transit.
National Waste Management Legislation in Pakistan Basel convention is implemented under the following legislations: • Pakistan Environment Protection Act 1997 (PEPA-1997) • National Environment Policy 2005 • The Factories Act (1934) • The Pakistan Penal Code (1860) • The Explosives Act (1884)
National Waste Management Legislation in Pakistan • The Agriculture Pesticides Ordinance (1971) and rules (1973) • Section 13 and 14 of The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997 (PEPA-1997). • Draft Hazardous Substances Rules-2007 • National Technical Advisory Committee on Chemicals (NTACC)
Ship Recycling Defining ship recycling: • Is there any standard definition? • It may be defined as a set of unit operations for dismantling end of life ships for scrapping or disposal involving a wide range of activities from removing all gear and equipment to cutting down and recycling ship’s infrastructure and constituent substances. It may also involve unit processes for decomposition and destruction of hazardous substances such as ODS, PCBs, POPs e.t.c, used in the structure and operation of ships.
Ship Recycling as a Natural Resources and Energy Conservation Activity • Ship recycling can be viewed as an environment friendly economic activity • It provides opportunity to reuse significant parts , equipment and components of ships. • Steel can be recycled to produce new Steel. Reducing the energy requirements for Steel production making it a climate friendly industry.
Ship Recycling as a Natural Resources and Energy Conservation Activity • Copper cables and aluminum may also be recycled in a similar way. • Natural resources are reused, conserved and protected for use by future generations. • The ship recycling industry therefore contribute significantly to sustainable development.
Ship Recycling as a Potential threat to Health and Environment • The Ship recycling industry involves several activities which pose threat to health and safety of workers, local and global environment. Such as, • Entry into confined, enclosed dangerous atmospheres • Removal of paints containing several hazardous chemicals • Metal cutting and disposal
Ship Recycling as a Potential threat to Health and Environment (cont.) • Powered industrial truck operations • Work on elevated surfaces, particularly near deck openings and edges • Bilge and ballast water removal • Oil and fuel removal and tank cleaning • Removal and disposal of ships machinery • Operations involving cranes, gear and equipment for material handling
Ship Recycling as a Potential threat to Health and Environment (cont.) • Cutting and welding operations and use of compressed gas • Activities involving scaffolds, ladders and working services • Excess noise associated with grinding, hammering, metal cutting e.t.c • Possibility of fire form ignited insulation, matting, lagging, residual fuel, lubricants, flammable liquids e.t.c.
Ship Recycling Confronted with Hazardous Chemicals and Wastes • Ship manufacturing and sailing has been using some chemical substances for long which have now been found highly dangerous for health and environment • The substances include Asbostos, PCBs, Lead, CFCs, Mercury e.t.c • These substances can cause: • Cancers, • Endocrine disruptions, • Memory losses • Various kinds of illnesses
Presence of Asbestos on ships • The Asbestos may be found on ships in; • Hanger liners, • Mastic under insulation • Cloth over insulation • Cables • Lagging and insulation on pipes and hull • Adhesives • Gaskets on piping connections • valve packing
Presence of PCBs on ships • The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be found on ships in; • Rubber products such as hoses • Plastic foam insulation • Cables • Silver paint • Habitability paint • Felt under septum plates • Plates on top of the hull bottom • Primary paint on hull steel • Electrical equipment
Presence of Lead on ships • Lead may be found on ships in; • Lead and chromate paint • Lead ballast • Batteries • Generators • Motor components
Presence of Mercury on ships • Mercury may be found on ships in; • Fluorescent light tubes • Thermometers • Electrical switches • Light fittings • Fire detectors • Tank-level indicators
Presence of CFCs on ships • CFCs may be found on ships in; • Self contained refrigeration devices such as: • water coolers, • small freezer units, • Air conditioning equipment (if any)
Presence of Heavy Metals on ships • Heavy metals may be found on ships in; • Ship transducers • Ballast • Paint coatings e.t.c
Safe Recycling of Ships • Ship breaking is a challenging and complicated task due to the structural complexity of the ships and several environmental, safety and health issues involved. • Proper management and provision of necessary safeguards can make this potentially hazardous activity a worker and environmental friendly one.
Safe Recycling of Ships • Following activities and precautions are necessary for safe recycling of ships: • Adequate training and retraining of workers and management. • Provision and use of proper personal protective equipment (PPE). • Adequate fire protection measures and fire fighting facilities. • Provision of appropriate emergency response, rescue and first aid personnel and services.
Safe Recycling of Ships (cont.) • Adoption of proper waste handling mechanisms and management systems. • SOPs for handling storage and movement of harmful chemicals, bio-hazardous materials, paints, solvents, Inflammable, caustic and poisonous materials. • Provision of state of the art facilities for environmentally sound destruction of hazardous materials such as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).
Safe Recycling of Ships (cont.) • Provision of standardized facilities and trained manpower for tank cleaning, asbestos removal, refrigerant recovery, stripping and removing insulating materials, removal of all electric cables and wires, removal of PEC piping and other plastics etc.
Safe Recycling of Ships (cont.) • Ensuring no discharge of toxic waste, oil and sludge etc on the yards or into the sea. • Recycling of all recyclable materials. • Environmentally sound disposal of all wastes and harmful byproducts. • Proper design, development and layout of ship recycling yards.
Steps by Government of Pakistan for Safe Recycling of Ships • Federal Government of Pakistan and Provincial Government of Balochistan has taken several steps for ensuring Environmental Protection and Workers’ Safety such as: • Mandatory requirement of conducting IEE/EIA before a no objection certificate can be obtained. • Provision of EMP (Environmental Management Plan) as part of IEE/EIA report.
Steps by Government of Pakistan for Safe Recycling of Ships (cont.) • Survey by Government officials (Balochistan EPA personnel) to identify, quantify and notify hazardous materials onboard the ships marked for recycling. • Examination of all tanks and confined spaces by Government’s approved surveyors to ensure Gas Free environment. • No hot work allowed before removal of all oil and sludge. • Cutting operation not allowed before issuance of: • Safe for Men Entry Certificates and • Safe for Hot Works Certificates
Steps by Government of Pakistan for Safe Recycling of Ships (cont.) • The Government of Balochistan, Balochistan Environmental Protection Agency after thorough review of IEE/EIA reports decides to accord approval/no objection certificate in favor of a ship breaking company subject to various terms and conditions as laid down in section 17 and 18 of EIA/IEE regulation 2000 including: • Mitigation measures and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) as included in the EIA/IEE report should be strictly implemented. • Techniques should be adopted to minimize noise during the operation phase and gas/hazardous free certificate shall be provided.
Steps by Government of Pakistan for Safe Recycling of Ships (cont.) 3. All precautionary measures should be strictly adhered to minimize any negative impacts on soil, ground water, ambient air quality and wildlife (if any) in the area. 4. Any kind of waste generated/produced should be appropriately disposed off. 5. In case of any verifiable damage to community, the compensation will invariably be paid by the proponents. 6. In case of any accident, future damage/ disaster the proponent would be held responsible; labor shall be equipped with proper uniform.
Steps by Government of Pakistan for Safe Recycling of Ships (cont.) 7. Dismantling schedule shall be prepared with subsequent arrangement with visits of BEPA officers before dismantling activities. • The proponents shall be liable for compliance of section 17 and 18 of EIA/IEE regulation 2000. • This approval will not absolve the proponent from obtaining any other approval that may be required under any law. • This approval shall be treated as null and void if the conditions are not complied with.
Hong Kong Convention and control of hazardous materials The Hong Kong convention provides that: • For all ships new installations of materials that contain asbestos will be prohibited. • It means maintenance of ships will become more difficult and costly making it an economically and environmentally undesirable option. • This may result in relatively early recycling of ships. • It may result in increased business for the recycling industry. • Import of all types of asbestos is banned in Pakistan, except the chrysotile asbestos
Hong Kong Convention and control of hazardous materials (cont.) • New installations which contain ODS(ozone depleting substances) shall be prohibited on all ships. • HCFCs (Hydro chlorofluorocarbons) will be permitted till the 1st of January 2020. • Pakistan has already phased out major ODS. • Work on phasing out HCFCs has been initiated. • Repair and maintenance of ships having Os equipment and products will become more difficult costly. • More opportunities for ship recyclers may arise.
Hong Kong Convention and control of hazardous materials (cont.) • For all ships new installation of PCB containing materials will be prohibited. • The electrical equipments like transformers, capacitors, wiring, cabling systems etc will be affected. • Increased cost of maintenance and repair. • Early recycling possibilities.
Hong Kong Convention and control of hazardous materials (cont.) • AFS convention 2001 • This convention controls anti-fouling systems. • No compounds or systems will be permitted in contravention of AFS convention. • This means that parties to Hong Kong Convention will automatically become bound to AFS also. • Organo-tin Compounds, Tributyltin (TBT) used as biocide will become prohibited. • What alternatives?