maximizing returns from pre kindergarten education l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Maximizing Returns from Pre-Kindergarten Education PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Maximizing Returns from Pre-Kindergarten Education

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 33

Maximizing Returns from Pre-Kindergarten Education - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Maximizing Returns from Pre-Kindergarten Education. Conference on Education and Economic Development Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland November 19, 2004 W. Steven Barnett, Ph.D. National Institute for Early Education Research (732) 932-4350, . Overview.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Maximizing Returns from Pre-Kindergarten Education' - Gideon

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
maximizing returns from pre kindergarten education
Maximizing Returns from Pre-Kindergarten Education

Conference on Education and Economic Development

Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

November 19, 2004

W. Steven Barnett, Ph.D.

National Institute for Early Education Research

(732) 932-4350,



  • Trends and current landscape
  • Rationale for public investment
  • How to increase efficiency

Efficiency determined by policies about:

  • Person—Who?
  • Process—How?
  • Context—What else?
trends and current landscape
Trends and Current Landscape
  • Preschool education is growing steadily
  • Patchwork of public & private programs
  • Most public programs target the poor
  • Many poor children still not enrolled
  • Enrollment is lowest at moderate income
rationale for public investment in pre k
Rationale for Public Investment in Pre-K
  • High Rates of Return
  • Large Externalities
  • Imperfect Information
  • Principal-Agent Problem
  • Myopia
  • Individual Risk
economic benefits of early education
Economic Benefits of Early Education


  • Increased achievement
  • Reduced grade repetition and special education
  • Increased educational attainment
  • Increased employment, productivity, and earnings
  • Less welfare dependency
  • Reduced crime and delinquency

Some evidence

  • Less abuse and neglect
  • Increased maternal employment and earnings (child care)
  • Decreased health care costs and mortality
economic returns to pre k for disadvantaged children
Economic Returns to Pre-K for Disadvantaged Children

Cost Benefits B/C

Perry Pre-K $16,264 $277,631 17.07

Abecedarian $36,929 $139,571 3.78

Chicago $ 7,417 $ 52,936 7.14

person who should get public pre k
Person: Who Should Get Public Pre-K?
  • Targeting is costly and imperfect
    • Head Start misses most poor children
    • About half of Head Start children not poor
  • Benefits do not stop at the poverty line
    • Many nonpoor have similar problems
    • Benefits decrease gradually with income
    • Georgetown study of UPK in OK
educational failure is common for middle class children
Educational Failure is Common for Middle Class Children

Middle class children have fairly high rates of the problems that Pre-K reduces for poor children.

IncomeRetention Dropout

Lowest 20% 17% 23%

20-80% 12% 11%

Highest 20% 8% 3%

Source:US Department of Education, NCES (1997). Dropout rates in the United States: 1995. Figures are multi-year averages.

process improving quality and outcomes in pre k
Process: Improving Quality and Outcomes in Pre-K
  • Outcomes of models not fully replicated
  • Teaching is inadequate
  • Teachers poorly qualified, poorly paid
  • Curriculum lacking
  • Class sizes sometimes too large
  • Standards and accountability needed
  • Leadership and supervision required
effects of models v large scale
Effects of Models v. Large Scale

Models Head Start/

Public School

Special Education 19.6 4.7**

Grade Repetition 14.9 8.4*

**p<.01, two tailed t-test with unequal variances

*p<.05, two-tailed t test with unequal variances

process research needs
Process: Research Needs
  • Requires RCT’s
  • Age of start and years
  • Length of day and year
  • Fine tune class size and ratio
  • Fine tune staffing and support
  • Services beyond the classroom
  • Choice and competition
context changing policy changing world
Context: Changing policy, Changing World

K-12 policies must synchronize

Education is more important

NCLB requires closing the gap

High rates of poverty and low ed. persist

Nation needs higher productivity

Crime has become even more costly

  • Public Pre-K will and should grow
  • Public Pre-K must be improved
  • Universal programs may be more efficient
  • Quality can and must be raised
  • Balanced curriculum is part of quality