Maximizing Returns from Pre-Kindergarten Education. Conference on Education and Economic Development Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland November 19, 2004 W. Steven Barnett, Ph.D. National Institute for Early Education Research www.nieer.org (732) 932-4350, [email protected] . Overview.
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Efficiency determined by policies about:
Cost Benefits B/C
Perry Pre-K $16,264 $277,631 17.07
Abecedarian $36,929 $139,571 3.78
Chicago $ 7,417 $ 52,936 7.14
Middle class children have fairly high rates of the problems that Pre-K reduces for poor children.
Lowest 20% 17% 23%
20-80% 12% 11%
Highest 20% 8% 3%
Source:US Department of Education, NCES (1997). Dropout rates in the United States: 1995. Figures are multi-year averages.
Models Head Start/
Special Education 19.6 4.7**
Grade Repetition 14.9 8.4*
**p<.01, two tailed t-test with unequal variances
*p<.05, two-tailed t test with unequal variances
K-12 policies must synchronize
Education is more important
NCLB requires closing the gap
High rates of poverty and low ed. persist
Nation needs higher productivity
Crime has become even more costly