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Housekeeping. Issues portfolios: 3 issues Due December 2. When Humans and Wildlife Collide Part I: Damage. Problems with white-tailed deer. Case Example: Whitetail Deer Potential Solutions. Fencing and repellents. Case Example: Whitetail Deer Potential Solutions.

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housekeeping
Housekeeping

Issues portfolios:

  • 3 issues
  • Due December 2
slide5
Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Fencing and repellents

slide6
Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Fertility control agents: immunocontraception

slide7
Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Food supplementation

slide8
Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Sharpshooters

--Cost effective

--Safer than open season

--Socially acceptable?

slide9
Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Reintroduce predators

slide10
When Humans and Wildlife Collide

Part II: Disease

Principles of Fisheries & Wildlife Management FiW 2114

Lecture 25

slide11
Objectives of Lecture

1. To explore different outcomes of human/wildlife interactions (in this context, disease)

2. To explore selected case studies involving white-tailed deer, bison, and mice

3. To evaluate feasible alternatives for control of disease transmission

slide12
Negative interactions: Disease

Wildlife populations are vulnerable to diseases and parasites, some communicable to humans and agricultural species

  • deer - chronic wasting disease, bovine tuberculosis, Lyme disease
  • bison - brucellosis
  • raccoon, bobcat, fox, skunk, … - rabies
  • rodents - hantavirus, bubonic plague
  • crows, jays, other birds - West Nile virus
animal to animal transmission
Animal-to-animal transmission
  • Chronic wasting disease of cervids
  • Bovine tuberculosis
  • Brucellosis of bison
background prions
Background: Prions
  • Prions = Proteinaceous infectious particles
  • Cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
  • Interact with normal protein, cause it to misfold
  • Stanley Prusiner won Nobel Prize for showing this
  • Ex: scrapie of sheep, mad cow disease, Creutzfeld-Jakob disease of humans, and…
chronic wasting disease
Chronic Wasting Disease
  • Affects cervids
  • Contagious and fatal in (deer and elk populations
  • Humans, livestock may be immune
chronic wasting disease16
Chronic Wasting Disease
  • Prevention and management
    • Aggressive testing of cervids
    • Reductions of density in CWD areas
    • Restrictions on transport of deer, elk meat
    • Some states have banned importation of live cervids
    • Warnings to hunters about consumption of some parts of deer, notably CNS
cwd actions taken
CWD – Actions taken
  • In 2001, USDA declared an animal emergency because of the epidemic of CWD in captive elk in Nebraska
  • In 2002, wild deer in Wisconsin were diagnosed with CWD
  • In Virginia in 2002, of 1114 deer tested, all were negative for CWD
bovine tuberculosis
Bovine tuberculosis
  • Tuberculosis is a disease of the respiratory system caused by Mycobacterium bovis
  • Three types: human, avian, and bovine
  • Bovine TB transmissible to other mammals
  • Transmission to humans only through raw milk or respiratory exposure to infected cattle or carcasses
bovine tuberculosis20
Bovine tuberculosis
  • Bovine TB was once common in cattle in the U.S., but rare in deer
  • Concern regarding deer is transmission to livestock
  • Before 1994, only 8 cases in deer in North America
bovine tuberculosis in michigan
Bovine tuberculosis in Michigan
  • 1994: Found in a white-tailed deer
  • To date, found in 228 deer of 30,000 tested
  • Also in 5 coyotes, 2 raccoons, one black bear, and one bobcat
  • Predators presumably contracted TB by eating lungs and lymph of infected deer
bovine tuberculosis management
Bovine tuberculosis: Management
  • 1997: Multi-agency committee recommended:
  • Survey of wildlife populations
  • Testing of livestock
  • Ban supplemental feeding of deer
  • Ban new deer or elk enclosures
  • Reduce deer density through hunting
  • Educate the public
slide24
Bison in Yellowstone

What is the value of a buffalo?

  • biological
slide25
Bison in Yellowstone

What is the value of a buffalo?

  • biological
  • ecological
slide26
Bison in Yellowstone

What is the value of a buffalo?

  • biological
  • ecological
  • cultural
slide27
Bison in Yellowstone

What is the value of a buffalo?

  • biological
  • ecological
  • cultural
  • aesthetic
slide28
History of Bison

in Yellowstone

  • Yellowstone - only place in lower 48 states where buffalo were not extirpated
  • In 1902, 23 wild bison left in Yellowstone on bison ranch
  • Intensive management kept herd size down
  • Highest reported herd size was 1,477 (1954)
  • 397 bison in 1967
slide29
Brucellosis and bison in Yellowstone
  • Bison a reservoir for bacterium, Brucella abortus
  • Contagious, caused by exposure to reproductive tissues or fluids (only females are infectious)
  • Causes spontaneous abortion in ~5th month
  • Hence, economic implications for cattle producers
slide30
Can Brucellosis be transmitted from

bison to livestock?

  • Originally transmitted from livestock to bison
  • No documented case of transmission in wild from bison to livestock; only occurred under confined conditions
  • Antibody-based test;buffalo can test positive w/no incidence of disease
  • Testing revealed that <1% of buffalo were infected
slide31
Brucellosis and Bison in Yellowstone

Bison tend to leave from north or west edges of park

slide32
Brucellosis and Bison in Yellowstone: Management or Massacre?
  • 3,500 buffalo in 1996
  • Severe winter (1996-97)
  • 1,084 buffalo shot while exiting the park
  • 2,000 total dead; others starved in park
  • Huge outcry by range of stakeholders
bringing science to bear on the controversy
Bringing Science to bear on the controversy
  • USDI called for scientific study
  • Released report: Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area in 1997
  • Recommendations:
    • Establish disease surveillance and quarantine areas around Park
    • Vaccinate cattle around park and monitor frequently
    • Develop vaccine for bison (currently none exists)
    • Test and slaughter infected bison, elk, cattle
    • Collect better data on infected animals and risk of transmission
brucellosis and bison in yellowstone management planning
Brucellosis and Bison in Yellowstone: Management planning
  • Interagency group organized to develop management plan: NPS, USFS, State of Montana, APHIS
  • June 1998: Interagency group proposed 7 alternatives in a draft Environmental Impact Statement:
bison in yellowstone management alternatives
Bison in YellowstoneManagement Alternatives
  • 1: “No” action: continued capture/slaughter of bison leaving N or W boundaries of park
  • 2: Minimal management: changes in cattle operations; allow bison to range
  • 3: Management w/public hunting
  • 4: Interim plan, limited public hunting/quarantine
  • 5: Aggressive brucellosis control: 10 years of vaccination, then capture-test-removal
  • 6: Aggressive brucellosis control through vaccination
  • 7: Preferred alternative: manage for specific population range (1,700-2,500)
slide36
Mediated negotiation among the parties….Final EIS and bison management plan for Yellowstone National Park
  • (December 2000)
  • National Park Service will:
  • Capture, test and possibly hold bison
  • Vaccinate wildlife
  • Limit population of bison to manage risk of disease
  • APHIS and Montana will:
  • Accept disease management, as opposed to disease eradication
  • All parties will participate in adaptive management program
today in yellowstone
Today in Yellowstone
  • 1,100 bison killed in winter-spring 2003
  • No testing for brucellosis
  • USFS transferred some grazing allotments to Idaho
  • Reduces risk of livestock contacting buffalo leaving park
slide38
Bison in Yellowstone

Management Alternatives

Do we view the bison issue the same as the white-tailed deer issues?

What features are similar

and which different?

animal to human transmission
Animal-to-human transmission
  • Bubonic plague
  • Rabies
  • Lyme disease
  • Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
bubonic plague
Bubonic plague
  • Bacterial illness transmitted by fleas on rats and other rodents and by contact with infected blood or tissue
  • Active in 15 states, mostly in the West
  • NM: two cases in 2002, 1 in 2001, one in 2000, six in 1999, nine in 1998, …
  • Last plague-related death in U.S. was in 1994
bubonic plague historically
Bubonic plague, historically
  • Plague outbreaks have killed about 200 million people in the past 1500 years
  • “Black Death” started in 1347 and killed 25 million people in Europe and 13 million in the Middle East and China within 5 years
slide42
Rabies
  • Acute, contagious infection of central nervous system
  • Caused by virus, entry by animal bite
  • Incubation 21-120 days, virtually always fatal
  • Many different species variants
  • Currently epizootic in raccoons here in VA, throughout East
  • Nearly all human cases are bat rabies
ticks
Ticks
  • Ticks are vectors of:
  • Lyme disease
  • Babesiosis and Ehrlichiosis
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  • How does this relate to how wildlife and humans collide??
lyme disease
Lyme disease
  • Lyme spirochete enters ticks with blood meal
  • As deer and mice forage, they brush against plants, and ticks attach to them
  • Humans also brush against plants
  • Ticks, mice and deer don’t get Lyme disease; humans (and some domesticated animals) do
how can managers minimize transmission of lyme disease47
How can managers minimize transmission of Lyme disease?
  • Promote awareness and change in human behavior:
    • Keep clothing tightly fastened
    • inspect yourself for ticks
    • recognize symptoms
    • vaccine for those likely to be exposed
  • Control deer (and mouse) populations
slide48
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
  • Etiological agent - a hantavirus
  • Sin nombre virus (in East)
  • Family Bunyaviridae (ssRNA)
  • Vertebrate hosts
vectors
Vectors

Deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus

Cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus

slide50
Transmission of hantavirus
  • Chonically infected rodent
  • Horizontal transmission by intraspecific aggressive behavior
  • Virus present in aerosolized excreta
  • Transmission to humans by bite or by contact of aerosolized virus with mucus membranes
clinical presentation
Clinical presentation
  • Most frequent: Fever, myalgia, nausea or vomiting, cough
  • Other symptoms: Dizziness, joint pain, shortness of breath late in course of disease
  • Rare: nasal discharge, sore throat
  • Case fatality 37%, most often due to respiratory failure
hps management
HPS management
  • Early aggressive intensive care
  • Early use of inotropic agents to stimulate heartbeat
  • Early ventilation
  • Careful monitoring:
  • Oxygenation
  • Fluid balance
  • Blood pressure
rodent exposure in 70 confirmed hps cases
Rodent exposure in 70 confirmed HPS cases
  • Peridomestic exposure 69%
  • Peridomestic and occupational exposure 19%
  • Peridomestic and recreational exposure 9%
  • Occupational exposure 4%
  • Entering/cleaning rodent-infested structures 9%
  • Suggests methods for minimizing risk...
control mice inside
Control mice inside
  • Eliminate food sources:
  • Wash dishes and clean the floor and counters
  • Put pet food and water away at night
  • Store food and garbage in containers with tight lids
control mice inside59
Control mice inside
  • Prevent mice from entering
  • Clear brush and grass from around foundation
  • Seal holes and use flashing around base of house
  • Practice trapping continuously
control mice outside
Control mice outside
  • Eliminate possible nesting sites
  • Elevate hay, woodpiles, and garbage cans
  • Locate them at least 100 feet from house
  • Eliminate junk and things that provide shelter to rodents
control mice outside61
Control mice outside
  • Eliminate food sources
  • Store all animal feed in containers with lids
  • Discard excess feed in the evening into containers with lids
  • Take up water bowls in the evening
control mice outside62
Control mice outside
  • Encourage natural predators
  • Non-poisonous snakes
  • Owls
  • Hawks
use safety precautions
Use safety precautions
  • When cleaning in areas with rodents:
  • Wear rubber gloves
  • Don’t stir up and breathe dust
  • Wet contaminated areas with disinfectant
  • Dispose of dead animals properly
  • Disinfect used gloves
use safety precautions64
Use safety precautions
  • When enjoying outdoor activities:
  • Avoid contact with rodents
  • Stay away from rodent burrows or nests
  • Keep campsite clean and food tightly sealed
  • Open unused cabins and air out before entering or cleaning
  • Avoid sleeping on bare ground
slide65
These findings and recommendations are not abstract!
  • HPS took a graduate student from our midst…
cdc survey results
CDC survey results
  • Julie Sinclair of CDC surveyed this class on knowledge and attitudes regarding HPS on September 14
  • What did she find?
  • Selected results…
have you participated in any labwork involving small mammals
Have you participated in any labwork involving small mammals?
  • 15 yes
  • 92 no
  • Let’s focus on these 15 to see if they used personal protection while at work…
do you use gloves while doing labwork involving small mammals
Do you use gloves while doing labwork involving small mammals?
  • 3 never
  • 3 sometimes
  • 4 most of the time
  • 5 always
do you use a fitted facemask while doing labwork involving small mammals
Do you use a fitted facemask while doing labwork involving small mammals?
  • 11 never
  • 3 sometimes
  • 1 most of the time
  • 0 always
slide70
Do you wash your hands or use alcohol-based disinfectants while doing labwork involving small mammals?
  • 2 never
  • 2 sometimes
  • 2 most of the time
  • 9 always
do you use goggles or eye protection while doing labwork involving small mammals
Do you use goggles or eye protection while doing labwork involving small mammals?
  • 7 never
  • 3 sometimes
  • 3 most of the time
  • 2 always
do you use protective clothing while doing labwork involving small mammals
Do you use protective clothing while doing labwork involving small mammals?
  • 3 never
  • 6 sometimes
  • 3 most of the time
  • 3 always
  • So, then, what can we infer about laboratory practice for these people doing laboratory work with small mammals?
have you participated in any fieldwork involving small mammals
Have you participated in any fieldwork involving small mammals?
  • 12 yes
  • 94 no
  • Let’s focus on these 12 to see if they used personal protection while in the field…
do you use gloves while doing fieldwork involving small mammals
Do you use gloves while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?
  • 1 never
  • 6 sometimes
  • 1 most of the time
  • 3 always
do you use a fitted facemask while doing fieldwork involving small mammals
Do you use a fitted facemask while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?
  • 7 never
  • 3 sometimes
  • 1 most of the time
  • 0 always
slide76
Do you wash your hands or use alcohol-based disinfectants while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?
  • 0 never
  • 2 sometimes
  • 3 most of the time
  • 6 always
do you use goggles or eye protection while doing fieldwork involving small mammals
Do you use goggles or eye protection while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?
  • 6 never
  • 3 sometimes
  • 1 most of the time
  • 1 always
do you use protective clothing while doing fieldwork involving small mammals
Do you use protective clothing while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?
  • 2 never
  • 5 sometimes
  • 3 most of the time
  • 0 always
  • So, then, what can we infer about laboratory practice for these people doing fieldwork with small mammals?
slide79
Have you ever attempted to use personal protective equipment, but been limited due to lack of availability?
  • 17 yes
  • 87 no
  • Personal protective equipment will be supplied to all field workers in FiW, and use will be mandatory!
have you ever received any training on how to protect yourself from diseases transmitted by animals
Have you ever received any training on how to protect yourself from diseases transmitted by animals?
  • 27 yes
  • 80 no
  • Training will be provided from now on.
have you ever received rabies pre exposure vaccine
Have you ever received rabies pre-exposure vaccine?
  • 24 yes
  • 71 no
  • 24 don’t know
  • Have you ever received rabies post-exposure vaccine?
  • 3 yes
  • 93 no
  • 9 don’t know
what do you think would keep people from using personal protective equipment
What do you think would keep people from using personal protective equipment?

Percent responding “yes”:

  • Lack of availability – 71%
  • Peer pressure – it’s not cool – 67%
  • Uncomfortable to wear – 86%
  • Slows you down – 55%
  • Limits visibility, dexterity - 79%
  • Don’t think it’s necessary – 60%
  • All VT respondents n = 203
slide83
How much personal protection do you think a person will be willing to wear each time they work with small mammals in the lab?
  • 2 % None
  • 39% Gloves
  • 33% Fitted facemask and gloves
  • 17% Fitted facemask, gloves, and goggles
  • 11% Fitted facemask, gloves, goggles and protective clothing
  • All VT respondents n = 203
slide84
How much personal protection do you think a person will be willing to wear each time they work with small mammals in the field?
  • 1.5 % None
  • 43% Gloves
  • 36% Fitted facemask and gloves
  • 10% Fitted facemask, gloves, and goggles
  • 8.5% Fitted facemask, gloves, goggles and protective clothing
  • All VT respondents n = 203
slide85
Do you think it would be helpful to receive further training about protecting yourself from animal-borne diseases?
  • 82% yes
  • 12% no
  • If so, how?:
  • 86% in classes
  • 67% in the field
  • 9% other
  • All VT respondents n = 203
do you know of any infection risks associated with handling small mammals and or their excrement
Do you know of any infection risks associated with handling small mammals and-or their excrement?
  • 57 yes
  • 46 no
  • Respondents from this class n = ~120
slide87
If people know that contact with small mammals could be fatal, do you think they would be likely to follow the safety guidelines and wear personal protective equipment?
  • 98 yes
  • 6 no
  • Respondents from this class n = ~108
slide88
Do you think people who work with small mammals should be REQUIRED to follow the safety guidelines and wear personal protective equipment?
  • 73 yes
  • 19 no
  • 12 don’t know
  • Why wasn’t this 100% yes???
  • Respondents from this class n = ~108
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