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COMPUTER APPLICATIONS THE CPU AND MEMORY COM 6 THE SYSTEM UNIT Common Components Processor (CPU) Interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer Memory module Houses the memory that temporarily holds data and instructions while they are being processed by the CPU

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computer applications

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

THE CPU AND MEMORY

COM 6

the system unit
THE SYSTEM UNIT

Common Components

  • Processor (CPU)
    • Interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer
  • Memory module
    • Houses the memory that temporarily holds data and instructions while they are being processed by the CPU
  • Expansion cards
    • Circuit board that adds devices or capabilities
    • Ex. Sound, modem, and video cards
  • Ports
  • Connectors
slide3

Ports & Connectors

Processor

Sound, Modem, & Video Cards

Memory Module

the system unit4
THE SYSTEM UNIT
  • The Motherboard (aka System Board)
    • Contains many of the electronic components
    • Chips
      • A small piece of semiconducting material on which one or more integrated circuits are etched
      • (1) of the most important chips: CPU
cpu and microprocessor
CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR
  • CPU (processor)
    • Interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer
    • Microprocessor - contains the CPU on a single chip in a PC
      • Ex. Pentium, Celeron, Athlon
cpu and microprocessor7
CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR
  • The Control Unit
    • A component of the CPU that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer
    • (4) Steps in Machine Cycle(aka Instruction Cycle)
      • Fetch - get the next instruction or data item from memory
      • Decode - translate the instruction
      • Execute - carry out the command
      • Store - write the result to memory
    • Speed - # of instructions processed per second
      • Measured in MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second)
        • Refers to CPU speed only
slide8

Most of the devices connected to the computer communicate with the CPU in order to carry out a task. The arrows in this figure represent the flow of data, instructions, and information.

cpu and microprocessor10
CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR
  • The Arithmetic/Logic Unit (aka ALU)
    • Performs the execution part of the machine cycle:
      • Arithmetic Operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
      • Comparison Operations (greater than, equal to, less than)
      • Logical Operations (AND, OR, NOT)
cpu and microprocessor11
CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR
  • Pipelining
    • The CPU begins execution of a second instruction before the first instruction is completed
    • Results in faster processing because the CPU does not have to wait for (1) instruction to complete the machine cycle before fetching the next
    • See Next Slide…
cpu and microprocessor13
CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR
  • Registers
    • Temporary storage locations used by the CPU
    • Holds data and instructions
    • Many types
      • Storing location of where instruction was fetched
      • Storing an instruction while it is being decoded
      • Storing data while the ALU processes it
      • Storing the results of a calculation
cpu and microprocessor14
CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR
  • The System Clock
    • Synchronizes all computer operations
    • Each tick is called a clock cycle
    • Faster clock means more instructions the CPU can execute each second
    • Speed measured in
      • Megahertz (MHz) = 1 million ticks of the system clock
      • Gigahertz (GHz) = 1 billion ticks of the system clock
      • Ex. 600 MHz has 600 million clock cycles per second
    • Speed ONLY affects the CPU & not the peripherals
cpu and microprocessor16
CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR
  • Microprocessor Comparison
    • Intel Pentium
    • Intel Celeron – for less expensive PCs
    • AMD (Intel-compatible)
    • Motorola PowerPC – found in Apple computers
    • Alpha – used primarily in workstations & high-end servers
cpu and microprocessor18
CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR
  • Microprocessor Comparison
    • Types of Intel processors:
      • Xeon
      • Pentium II with MMX
        • MMX allows the computer to manipulate and process multimedia data more efficiently
      • Celeron

**Higher clock speed means faster processor and costs more $$

    • See next slide for comparisons
cpu and microprocessor20
CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR
  • Processor Installation and Upgrades
    • Processor chips – inserted on motherboard
    • Zero-insertion force (ZIF) sockets – facilitate the installation & removal of processor chips
    • Upgrades:
      • Chip for chip – replace existing chip with a new one
      • Piggyback – new chip is stacked on top of the old one
      • Daughterboard – new chip is located on the daughterboard (small circuit board that plugs into the motherboard to add additional capabilities)
cpu and microprocessor21
CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR
  • Heat Sinks and Heat Pipes
    • Heat sink
      • Small ceramic or metal component with fins on its surface that is designed to absorb and ventilate heat produced by electrical components
    • Heat pipe
      • Like a heat sink, but used in laptops because there isn’t as much room as in a PC
cpu and microprocessor22
CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR
  • Coprocessors
    • Increases computer performance
    • Special processor chip or circuit board designed to assist the processor in performing specific tasks
    • Floating-point coprocessor (aka math or numeric coprocessors)
      • Beneficial in engineering, scientific, or graphics applications
cpu and microprocessor23
CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR
  • Parallel Processing
    • Using multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program
    • Speeds execution of the problem
    • Requires special software designed to recognize how to divide up the problem and then bring the results back together again
      • Ex. Supercomputers use it for weather forecasting
slide24

Parallel processing divides up a problem so that multiple processors work on their assigned portion of a problem at the same time.

data representation
DATA REPRESENTATION
  • Analog (human speech) vs. Digital
  • Digital
    • Only understand two states (On and Off)
  • Binary number system
    • Combination of ones and zeroes represent characters
    • Bit – smallest unit of data a computer can handle; is each on or off digital value
      • 8 bits = 1 byte
data representation26
DATA REPRESENTATION
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)vs. EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)
    • Both are sufficient for English and Western European languages
    • Unicode often used for other languages
  • Sending a character from the keyboard to the computer - Press key on keyboard computer converts it to binary & stores it  after processing, converts binary code back to an image image displayed on screen
memory
MEMORY
  • Used to store data, instructions, and information
  • Stores (3) basic items:
    • The operating system and other system software
    • Application programs
    • Data being processed by application programs
  • Bytes – the basic storage unit
    • Are stored at specific locations or addresses
slide29

Seats in a stadium are like addresses in memory…

  • Both:
  • Hold only (1) person/byte at a time
  • Can be empty
  • Have a unique identifying number
memory30
MEMORY
  • Size of memory is measured by the number of bytes available
    • Kilobyte (KB or K) - 1,024 bytes
    • Megabyte (MB) - one million bytes
  • Two memory types:
    • Volatile - contents lost when power is off; ex. RAM
    • Nonvolatile - not lost when power is off; ex. ROM
memory31
MEMORY
  • RAM (Random Access Memory)
    • Are the memory chips in the system unit
    • When the computer starts, operating system files are loaded from a hard disk into RAM
      • Information stays in RAM while computer is running
    • RAM Types:
      • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
        • Must be re-energized constantly or it loses its contents
        • Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) – much faster than DRAM because it’s synchronized to the system clock
      • Static RAM (SRAM)
        • Faster and more reliable than any DRAM
        • Doesn’t have to be re-energized as often as DRAM
        • More expensive than DRAM
memory32
MEMORY
  • RAM Chips
    • Smaller in size than processor chips
    • Packaged on circuit boards called single inline memory modules (SIMMs) or dual inline memory modules (DIMMs)
    • Found on the motherboard
memory33
MEMORY
  • Configuring RAM
    • The more RAM, the more programs and files a computer can work on at once
    • Software usually tells you how much RAM is required
    • Amount of RAM needed depends on what type of work the computer is used for
  • Amount of RAM determines how many programs & how much data a computer can handle
memory34
MEMORY
  • Cache
    • Helps speed the processing time of the computer by storing frequently used instructions and data
    • Most modern computers have two types of cache:
      • Level 1 - small capacity (8-64KB); built into processor chip
      • Level 2 - larger capacity (64KB-2MB), but slower; not part of the processor chip
    • When the processor needs an instruction, it searches memory in this order:
      • L1 Cache L2 cache  RAM
memory36
MEMORY
  • ROM (Read-only memory)
    • Cannot be modified
    • Contents not lost when the computer is turned off (Nonvolatile memory)
    • Contain data, instructions, or information that is recorded permanently
    • Programmable read-only memory (PROM) – program once and then it’s permanently on the chip
    • Flash Memory – can be erased and re-programmed
memory37
MEMORY
  • CMOS
    • Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
    • Another type of memory chip in the system unit
    • Stores configuration information about the computer such as type of disk drives, keyboard, and monitor
    • Uses a battery to retain the information when the computer is turned off
      • Keeps the calendar, date, and time current when computer is off
    • Information can be changed – unlike ROM
memory38
MEMORY
  • Memory Access Times
    • Access Time - Speed at which the processor can access data from memory directly
    • Measured in fractions of a second
    • Measured in nanoseconds (ns) which is one billionth of a second

Ten million operations in one blink