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Chapter 1 - Introduction to Electronics. Introduction Microelectronics Integrated Circuits (IC) Technology Silicon Chip Microcomputer / Microprocessor Discrete Circuits. Signals Signal Processing Transducers. http://www.eas.asu.edu/~midle/jdsp/jdsp.html. Signals Voltage Sources

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slide1

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Electronics

  • Introduction
    • Microelectronics
    • Integrated Circuits (IC) Technology
    • Silicon Chip
    • Microcomputer / Microprocessor
    • Discrete Circuits
slide2

Signals

    • Signal Processing
    • Transducers

http://www.eas.asu.edu/~midle/jdsp/jdsp.html

slide3

Signals

    • Voltage Sources
    • Current Sources
    • Thevenin & Norton
    • http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/ClickDevice/refdir.html
    • http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/Circuit_Design_Lab/circuit_design_lab.html
    • http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/CircuitElements/vcvs.html
slide4

Signals

    • Voltage Sources
    • Current Sources
slide5

Signals

    • Voltage Sources
    • Current Sources

http://www.clarkson.edu/~svoboda/eta/ClickDevice/super.html

http://javalab.uoregon.edu/dcaley/circuit/Circuit_plugin.html

slide6

Frequency Spectrum of Signals

    • Fourier Series
    • Fourier Transform
    • Fundamental and Harmonics
    • http://www.educatorscorner.com/experiments/spectral/SpecAn3.shtml

frequency

time

slide7

Frequency Spectrum of Signals

    • Fourier Series

http://www.jhu.edu/%7Esignals/fourier2/index.html

slide14

Frequency Spectrum of Signals

http://www.jhu.edu/%7Esignals/fourier2/index.html

http://www.jhu.edu/%7Esignals/listen/music1.html

http://www.jhu.edu/%7Esignals/phasorlecture2/indexphasorlect2.htm

slide15

Analog and Digital Signals

    • Sampling Rate http://www.jhu.edu/%7Esignals/sampling/index.html
    • Binary number system
    • http://scholar.hw.ac.uk/site/computing/activity11.asp
    • Analog-to-Digital Converter
    • http://www.astro-med.com/knowledge/adc.html
    • http://www.maxim-ic.com/design_guides/English/AD_CONVERTERS_21.pdf
    • Digital-to-Analog Converter
  • http://www.maxim-ic.com/ADCDACRef.cfm
slide16

Amplifiers

Vin

Vout

Voltage gain (Av) = Vout/Vin

Linear - output is proportional to input

Current amplifiers current gain (Ai) = Iout/Iin

Power amplifiers power gain (Ap) = Pout/Pin

slide17

Amplifiers

    • Signal Amplification
    • Distortion
    • Non-Linear Distortion
    • Symbols
    • Gains – Voltage, Power, Current
    • Decibels
    • Amplifier Power Supplies
    • Efficiency
slide18

Amplifiers

Gain in terms of decibels

Typical values of voltage gain, 10, 100, 1000 depending on size of input signal

Decibels often used when dealing with large ranges or multiple stages

Av in decibels (dB) = 20log|Av|

Ai in decibels (dB) = 20log|Ai|

Ap in decibels (dB) = 10log|Ap|

Av = 10 000 20log|10 000| = 80dB

Av = 1000 20log|1000| = 60dB

Av = 100 20log|100| = 40dB

Av = 10 20log|10| = 20dB

Av = -10 20log|-10| = 20dB

Av = 0.1 20log|0.1| = -20dB

Av negative - indicates a phase change (no change in dB)

dB negative - indicates signal is attenuated

slide19

Amplifiers

    • Example 1.1
slide20

Amplifiers

    • Saturation

An amplifier transfer characteristic that is linear except for output saturation.

An amplifier transfer characteristic that is linear except for output saturation.

slide21

Amplifiers

    • Non-Linear Transfer Characteristics and Biasing

An amplifier transfer characteristic that shows considerable nonlinearity. (b) To obtain linear operation the amplifier is biased as shown, and the signal amplitude is kept small.

slide22

Amplifiers

Circuit model of a voltage amplifier

+

Vin

-

+

Vout

-

  • EPOLY is a dependent source is SPICE; a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS)
  • EPOLY has a gain of Avo
  • The input to EPOLY is the voltage across Ri

I = 0

Vout = Avo Vin

Ri = input resistance

Ro = output resistance

slide23

+

Vin

-

+

Vout

-

Amplifiers

Voltage amplifier with input source and load

  • What should we design Ro to be?
  • Av = Vout/Vin = Avo RL/(RL + Ro)
  • Let Ro < < RL to make Av maximum
  • Ideally Ro = 0
  • Avo - gain of VCVS only, o indicates output is open
  • Av - gain of entire circuit
  • Av changes with circuit, Avo does not!
slide24

+

Vin

-

+

Vout

-

Amplifiers

Input resistance of amplifier circuit

  • What should we design Rin to be?
  • Vin = Vs Ri/(Ri + Rs)
  • Let Rin >> Rs to make Vin = Vs
  • Ideally Rin = infinity

If Rin = infinity, then all of Vs

makes it to the the amplifier;

otherwise part of the signal is lost

slide25

Amplifiers

Basic characteristics of ideal amplifier

For maximum voltage transfer

Rout = 0

Rin = infinity

slide26

Amplifiers

    • Example 1.2
slide27

Amplifiers

    • Example 1.2
slide28

Amplifiers

    • Example 1.2
slide29

Circuit Models For Amplifiers

    • Voltage Amplifiers
    • Common Models
    • Show example on board
slide30

Circuit Models For Amplifiers

    • Example 1.3
    • Class assignment
slide31

Circuit Models For Amplifiers

    • Other Amplifiers
    • Current
    • Transconductance
    • Transresistance
slide32

Circuit Models For Amplifiers

    • Example 1.4

Large-signal equivalent-circuit models of the npn BJT operating in the active mode.

slide34

Frequency Response of Amplifiers

    • Bandwidth
    • RC Circuits – Class Exercise
  • Single-Time Constant Networks
  • http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/plots/FOC.html
  • http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/acWorkout/Switched_RCandRL.html
slide35

Frequency Response of Amplifiers

    • Bandwidth

(a) Magnitude and (b) phase response of STC networks of the low-pass type.

slide38

Frequency Response of Amplifiers

(a) Magnitude and (b) phase response of STC networks of the high-pass type.

slide39

Frequency Response of Amplifiers

    • Example 1.5
    • Class assignment
slide40

Frequency Response of Amplifiers

    • Classification of Amplifiers
    • Based on Frequency Response
slide41

Frequency Response of Amplifiers

    • Exercise 1.6
    • Class assignment
slide42

The Digital Logic Inverter

    • Function
    • Transfer Characteristics
    • Noise Margins
slide43

The Digital Logic Inverter

    • Function
    • Transfer Characteristics
    • Noise Margins
slide44

The Digital Logic Inverter

    • Inverter Implementation