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Art and cultural centres formed from grassroots artistic initiatives. Reconversion of industrial, militar and commercial sites into creative centres ? TRENDS. A BIT OF HISTORY . Alternative centres from the 70s to the 80s. Very few « alternative » artistic centres emerged in Europe.
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into creative centres ?
Very few « alternative » artistic centres emerged in Europe.
They were an alternative to existing cultural institutions that cities were setting up :
They showed contemporary art forms that one would not see elsewhere in music, visual arts, performing arts...
with a specificity from the beginning : multidisciplinary oriented, multifunctionnality of spaces, warmest contact with audience/people
(Dublin - Ireland)
Foundation date: 1966
Foundation date: 1970
Former use: dairy
Foundation date: 1971
Former use: linen factory
Foundation date: 1974
Former use: market
Foundation date: 1977
Former use: asphalt plant and machines storehouse
Foundation date : 1980
Foundation date : 1972
Foundation date: 1973
Former use: ship chandlers
Foundation date: 1979
Former use: Ufa cinematographic company
WUK (Vienna - Austria)
Foundation date: 1981
Former use: locomotive factory
Foundation date: 1985
Former use: warehouse for electrical appliances
Foundation date: 1982
Former use: village hall, from 1912
Some cities start reusing factory as well for cultural multidisciplinary activities (e.g. La Friche in Marseilles, Kaapelitehdas in Helsinki)
1) Some started sometimes as squatts,
2) negociation of contract with owner for rental (such as governement, private landlord.. )
3) negociation of free lending contracts for governement property (ex: friche belle de mai in Marseilles)
Former factories, warehouses, army barracks, market hall, slaughterhouses, dairies, mostly industrial, militar and comefcial heritage in Europe
- Mostly it started without renovation works while experimenting the relation with audience.
- When architects involved, the initiators of the project need to be involved in designing the renovation/transformation.
- Structural funds from EU were used for some refurbishment (eg. Kulturfabrik in Luxembourg, , Zo in Sicily, Lugar Commun in Portugal...)
- STEP by STEP : the process of refurbishment needs time to be adapted and readpated to the project
Train stations Farms
Covered markets cinemas
Military barracks Printing houses, coalmines
Social centres Hospitals,
In brief all kind of disused factories…
- mostly non for profit organisations
It depends of the size and of the project :
- EVOLUTION (Importance of flexibility of project and finding the right structure)
Ex: common spaces, creating tools, human ressources, permanent and ephemeral projects, finding ways to legate the project to others
Foundation date: 1993
Former use: building under Martyrdom Square of Cotonou
To Inform, Mediate, Link and Support Autonomous Creative Spaces
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