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July 14,2004. Wireless LAN & Internet. Anan Phonphoem, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Intelligent Wireless Network Group (IWING) http://iwing.cpe.ku.ac.th/ Computer Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University. Agenda . WLAN and Internet Wireless classification

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Wireless lan internet

July 14,2004

Wireless LAN & Internet

Anan Phonphoem, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor

Intelligent Wireless Network Group (IWING)http://iwing.cpe.ku.ac.th/

Computer Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering,

Kasetsart University


Agenda
Agenda

  • WLAN and Internet

  • Wireless classification

  • History and present of IEEE 802.11

  • WLAN Security

  • WLAN Tendency

  • Case study: KUWIN



Internet
Internet

  • Internet definition:

    • Network of network of network….

    • Information, Communications, Business, and much more

  • How to access the Internet ?

    • Just a PC (device) and connection

  • Where can I connect?

    • Office, Home, or everywhere


Internet connection
Internet Connection

  • Normally implies “Cable Connection”

  • Last “string” to PC

    • UTP cable from Ethernet card to a switch

    • Phone line from modem to the outlet

    • Or any broadband access….

  • Local Area Network

  • WLAN is “Unwired LAN” or “No string LAN”



Wireless classification
Wireless Classification

WWAN

GSM/ GPRS / CDMA

WMAN

IEEE802.16

WLAN

IEEE802.11

HyperLan

WPAN

Bluetooth

WAN

WAN-MAN

PAN

MAN

MAN-LAN

LAN-PAN

Pico-Cell

Personal Operating Space

~50km

~2km

0km

~10m

Courtesy of IEEE 802.15, Jan. 2001





History 802 11 legacy
History: 802.11 Legacy

  • 1997: First standard

    • Standard name: IEEE 802.11-1997

    • Updated: IEEE 802.11-1999

    • Starting Point for “Standard-based WLAN”

  • For 2 Mbps: (fallback to 1 Mbps – Noisy): Direct sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) modulation

  • For 1-2 Mbps Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)

  • Both operate in ISM band 2.4 GHz

  • FHSS, DSSS, and infrared medium


802 11b
802.11b

  • 802.11b-1999

  • Range 50 – 100 m. (depends on obstacles)

  • Omnidirectial antenna

  • Indoor / Outdoor / Point-to-point (high-gain external antennas)

  • Max throughput of 11 Mbit/s (5.5, 2, 1 Mbps)

  • Attenuation: Metal, Thick walls, Water, etc.

  • ISM Band 2.4 GHz; DSSS; CSMA/CA

  • 14 overlapping ch. (Different ch.for different countries)

    • 3 simultaneously ch. (such as 1, 6, and 11)

  • Proprietary speed extension "802.11b+" (22, 33 and 44 Mbit/s)


802 11a
802.11a

  • 2001 (802.11a-1999)

  • Max throughput of 54 Mbps (Normally around 20 Mbps)

  • ISM Band 5 GHz (FCC may open more spectrum)

  • 12 nonoverlapping channels,

    • 8 dedicated to indoor

    • 4 to point to point

  • Not widely deployed (US. / Japan)

    • 802.11b popularity

    • Less range / More attenuation

    • Lack of roll back compatibility (now support a,b,and g)

    • In Europe considering HiperLan2


802 11g
802.11g

  • 3rd quarter 2003

  • ISM Band 2.4 GHz

  • Max throughput of 54 Mbps (Net 24.7 Mbps)

  • Fully backwards compatible with 802.11b

  • Dual-band / Tri-mode

    • supporting a, b, and g

    • A single wireless card / Access point


802 11 wi fi
802.11 Wi-Fi

  • Specification defined by IEEE (not Compatibity guarantee)

  • A special group, Wi-Fi Alliance

    • Group of maufacturer

    • Test compatibility

    • Guarantees interoperability (by issue Wi-Fi Trademark)

  • Start with 802.11b  Dual band/Tri mode (a, b, or g)

  • Security standard Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)



Wlan security original 802 11
WLAN Security: Original 802.11

  • Service Set IDentifier (SSID)

    • Simple password to identify WLAN

    • Need correct SSID to access

  • Media Access Control (MAC) address Filtering

    • List of MAC that allow to use

  • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)

    • An encryption scheme

    • Have some flaws


Wlan security 802 1x
WLAN Security: 802.1x

  • Provides secure access using port control

  • Provides EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)

  • Supports Kerberos, smart cards, one-time password

  • Require mutual authentication from users via access point to RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-in user Service)

  • Improved WEP

    • Employ dynamic keys (instead of static keys)


Wlan security wpa
WLAN Security: WPA

  • Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)

  • By Wi-Fi Alliance

  • Design to run on existing HW as a SW upgrade

  • Derived from upcoming 802.11i

  • Deployed in WLAN products for software download


Wlan security wpa1
WLAN Security: WPA

  • Operate in 2 modes

    • Enterprise mode

      • Need network server

      • Sophisticated authentication mechanism

      • Automatic distribution keys (Master keys)

    • Home mode (Pre-Shared Key)

      • No network server

      • User need to enter password (Key) – for starting point, change later

      • Use encryption process called Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)


Wlan security 802 11i
WLAN Security: 802.11i

  • Improve WPA encryption gain

  • Dynamic session key

  • Improve authentication

  • Implement Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

  • Message Integrity Check (MIC)

  • Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)



Tendency
Tendency

  • WiMAX

  • Increasing speed

  • More WLAN security

  • WLAN adoption

  • Technology convergence

  • Power over Ethernet (PoE)

  • Wireless LAN Hot Spot

  • Killer applications ???


Wireless last mile
Wireless Last Mile

  • IEEE 802.16a (WiMAX)

  • Last mile access (besides xDSL and cable modem)

  • Wireless point-to-point link

    • With directional antenna

    • Improve non-line of sight performance (eg. tree)

    • Install on house not the tower

  • Operating frequency < 11 GHz

  • Range up to 40 Km

  • Throughput up to 75 Mbps

  • Extension for WLAN usage


Need for speed
Need for speed

  • For 802.11, the overhead more than half of the data rate

    • 802.11b Max 11 Mbps; Actual 6 Mbps

    • 802.11a,g Max 54 Mbps; Actual 22 Mbps

  • 802.11n

    • Aims at 100 Mbps (raw throughput)

    • Reducing power and cost

    • Replace wire


More wlan security wireless worm
More WLAN security: wireless worm

  • Blaster and Nachi Experience

  • Normally treated end user (desktop and notebook) as the target of malicious code

  • Treats end user as transmission points for attacks on the network infrastructure


More wlan security wireless worm1
More WLAN security: wireless worm

  • Mobile users

    • Connected to unprotected Internet connections

    • Bring infected machines to logged in to corporate networks

  • Networks

    • Firewall and Intrusion-Detection System software

    • Routers/Switches need to protect the network

    • Implement software client such as “Cisco Trust Agent”

    • Trust Agent collects info from security software clients and relays that info to network devices

    • Routers/Switches enforce access privileges (denied / quarantined / limited access)


Wlan adoption

Security

Standards

Interoperability

Lack of Awareness

Lower Costs

Employee Demand

Security Solutions

Stabilizing Standards

Intel & Microsoft $$

WLAN Adoption

Adoption

Time


Technology convergence

By Visiongain

Technology Convergence

  • 26% of New PCs will be Labtop or Tablet PC

  • By 2006, 90% laptops will include Wi-Fi Capability

  • Internet led technology convergence

    • SMS and TV ()

    • Interactive TV (Interactive Chat/Games/Program Guides)


Power over ethernet poe
Power over Ethernet (PoE)

  • IEEE 802.3af (June 2003)

  • Major LAN Switch; IP Telephony; WLAN

  • Two delivery methods

    • Mid-Span

      • DC 48 volts

      • Unused wire pairs (Cat 5 and Cat 6)

    • End-Span

      • DC 48 volts over used pairs (different freq.)

      • Built in new switches

      • Support FastEthernet / Gigabit Ethernet


Power over ethernet poe1
Power over Ethernet (PoE)

http://www.nwfusion.com/news/2003/1124infrapoe.html


Wireless hot spot
Wireless Hot Spot

  • Public places

    • Top-rated hotels and restaurants

    • Colleges / Universities

  • In-building antenna systems to support various wireless technologies (Wi-Fi/cellular)

  • Wireless friendly environmental hot spot

    • KUWiN (Kasetsart University Wireless Network http://kuwin.ku.ac.th)

  • http://www.wi-fihotspotlist.com/


Enterprise voip

Enterprise VoIP

Enterprise VoIP

  • New technology to replace existing solutions

  • Well-known user expectations

  • Emphasis on meeting traditional PBX reliability and functionality

  • Good migration strategies


Router

Corporate LAN

Internet

PSTN

PSTN

Internet

Router

Server

Corporate LAN

Traditional LAN

Server

Telephony Server

Proprietary IP Phones

Traditional PBX

Proprietary Digital Phones

VoIP

Traditional Telephony

VoIP


Enterprise wireless

Enterprise wireless

Enterprise wireless

  • New technology for new applications

  • Developing user expectations

  • Emphasis on solving deployment issues and lowering cost

  • Disruptive technology


Voice over wlan vowlan a killer application for wlan

Enterprise wireless

Enterprise VoIP

Voice over Wireless LAN

http://www.spectralink.com

Voice Over WLAN (VoWLAN)A Killer Application for WLAN ?



Agenda1
Agenda

  • Background and Milestones

  • Deployment issues

  • System developments

  • Applications

  • Conclusion/Future Issues


Kasetsart university background

  • 7 campuses with 38,000+ students, 3000+ academic staffs, 4000+ supported staffs

    • 4 established campuses : Bangkhen, KampaengSaen, SriRacha and Sakhon Nakorn Province campus

    • 3 campuses projects : SupanBuri, LopBuri, and Krabi

    • 2 Demonstration schools : Bangkhen and Amata City

Kasetsart University Background


Bangkhen campus
Bangkhen Campus

  • 194 buildings on 568,173 m2

    • 14 Faculties (130 buildings)

    • 1 Graduate school (1 building)

    • 5 Offices (9 buildings)

    • 4 Institutes (16 buildings)

    • Central management (38 buildings)


Nontrinet

Internet

Japan

2 Mbps

24 Mbps

UniNet

NECTEC

155 Mbps

155 Mbps

Bangkhen

1.5 Mbps

1 Mbps

2 Mbps

512 Kbps

2 Mbps

SriRacha

SakonNakhon

Kampaengsaen

NontriNet

  • Gigabit backbone

  • Multicast enabled

  • VoIP enabled


Implementation phase i 2000 2001
Implementation Phase I: 2000-2001

  • Followed IEEE 802.11b standard

  • Deploy network in 2 campuses

    • SakhonNakorn : 5 APs in 5 Buildings

    • Bangkhen :

      • 6 APs in CPE and 2 APs in OCS (2000)

      • 8 APs in Rector’s office for e-meetings (2001)

  • Enable use by approximately 80 users


Implementation phase ii 2002
Implementation Phase II : 2002

  • Deploy network campus wide

    • 30 APs installation in 18+ buildings

  • Check out wireless LAN cards from main library : Birth of KUWiN

  • Open for everyone on campus

19 Sep 2002:Launch KUWiN at Main Library


Implementation phase iii 2003
Implementation Phase III : 2003

  • More APs installation…

    • 40 APs at every academic and administrative building in Bangkhen

    • 2 APs in Kampangsaen (only for executives)

  • Provide information and technical support equivalent to wired network


Kuwin current status
KUWiN Current Status

  • No. of APs : approximately 120

  • No. Building installed : 43

  • Coverage Area : ~800,000 m2

  • Wireless users : 859

  • Wireless cards : 1236

  • Status : March 31, 2004


How much does it cost
How much does it cost?

  • Approximate investment

    • ~3M Baht for APs + wired network

    • ~0.5M Baht for fiber optics expansion

    • ~1M Baht for new switches expansion

    • ~0.7M Baht for wireless LAN cards (140+ units)

  • Not included…

    • Survey and design labor costs

    • System development


Agenda2
Agenda

  • Background and Milestones

  • Deployment issues

  • System developments

  • Applications

  • Conclusion/Future Issues


Wireless needs wires
Wireless Needs Wires

  • New dedicated cables needed to be installed.

    • CAT 5e UTP cable capable of supporting a 100BaseT connection

    • All APs utilize POE (Power on Ethernet)

    • Fiber optics patch cords for wireless VLANs

    • New fiber optics installation for some buildings


Deployment
Deployment

  • Wireless site survey by KUWiN team

    • Computer Center staff

    • Computer Engineering students

  • Wireless installation was handled by local contractors

  • Wireless team controlled the contractor’s deployment on a per-building basis


Design considerations i
Design Considerations (I)

  • Indoor coverage area is a primary consideration

  • Comprehensive coverage with roaming

  • Wireless must be accessible in all academic and administrative buildings

  • Simple to access with authentication

    • RADIUS authentication


Design considerations ii

Wired Plane

Wireless Plane

Design Considerations (II)

  • How to prevent IP contention on local subnets?

  • How to provide roaming to wireless users?

  • Solutions :

    • A dedicated layer of multiple wireless subnets

    • VLAN implementation


Model
Model

  • “KUWiN for free”

  • Easily access :

    • Wireless LAN cards available for free check out at Main Library


Agenda3
Agenda

  • Background and Milestones

  • Deployment issues

  • System developments

  • Applications

  • Conclusion/Future Issues


What we have developed
What we have developed?

  • Registration System

  • Site Information

  • System Monitoring

    • Usage

    • Availability

    • Bandwidth

  • Management system


System registration

Registration page

Number of users

System Registration


Site information
Site information

AP’s Location

Signal strength & Coverage area


Usage
Usage

Maximum concurrent users

Average number of users



Local measurement ap s user bw utilization

AP to clients

Clients to AP

#users (weekly)

#users (daily)

Local Measurement : AP’s User & BW Utilization


Agenda4
Agenda

  • Background and Milestones

  • Deployment issues

  • System developments

  • Applications

  • Conclusion/Future Issues


Our applications
Our applications

  • E-meetings

  • Lectures

  • Conferences

  • WLAN Positioning System



Agenda5
Agenda

  • Background and Milestones

  • Deployment issues

  • System developments

  • Applications

  • Conclusion/Future Issues


Our experiences
Our Experiences

  • Good embraces

  • Top executives/Engineering are relying on wireless every day (the wireless has to be up!)

  • High demand from students! (more than from staff)


Keys to deployment success for ku
Keys to Deployment Success (for KU)

  • Design first, then deployment

  • Design for coverage, not for capacity

  • Concrete implementation plan

  • Centralized management and investment

  • Full support from top executives

  • Simple procedure to access/use

  • Support team with strong experiences in both wired and wireless


Support team
Support Team

  • Office of Computer Services

  • Computer Engineering Department

  • Research Lab:

  • Intelligent Wireless Network Group http://iwing.cpe.ku.ac.th


Kuwin future issues
KUWiN Future Issues

  • Hotspot with power outlets, free of charged

  • More coverage area (every building)

  • More secure (Encryption)

  • Notebook checkout

  • Next generation : 802.11g – 54 Mbps

    • Upgrade cost?

    • Ease of transition?

  • “Airspace policy” enforcement


References
References

  • Spectral Link http://www.spectralink.com/

  • Vision Gain http://www.visiongain.com/

  • http://www.wireless-analyser.co.uk/content/802.11/

  • http://www.hkwtia.org/wtia/index.htm

  • http://www.intel.com/business/bss/infrastructure/wireless/

  • http://www.nwfusion.com/news/2003

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11

  • http://www.newsfactor.com/



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