Vertebrate Classes All in Chordate Phylum - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Vertebrate ClassesAll in Chordate Phylum

  2. All vertebrates have… • Bilateral symmetry • Fully developed coelom with organs • Closed circulatory system • Endoskeleton with spinal cord

  3. Vertebrate Classes Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

  4. Orders of Fish Lamprey and hagfish (jawless) bony fish Shark (cartilage)

  5. Lampreys/HagfishJawless Fish • Lampreys attach to fish-parasites • Have “round sucker like mouths” • Hagfish are Scavengers of dead and dying fish on ocean bottom

  6. Sharks, Skates, Rays • Jaws • The shark’s mouth has 6 to 20 rows of backward-pointing teeth • Some can detect blood from an injured animal as far as 500 miles away • No swim bladder

  7. Bony Fish Most are familiar fishes and include snake-like eels, salmon, trout, bass, herring, tallapia and lantern fish (most fish we eat)

  8. Bony Fish Fishes are the most numerous of all vertebrates and most widespread in their distribution Ectothermic

  9. Obtain Oxygen • Fish obtain O2 through their gills • Fish can extract 85 % of the oxygen passing over the gills • Blood goes to the gills, is oxygenated and sent to all parts of the body • Single loop circulation in fish

  10. Fish have a two chambered heart. • This is efficient for the fish since it is in water, but would not work for land animals who need more energy.

  11. 2 chamber heart The disadvantage of a 2 chambered heart is its slow delivery MUCH more energy required to move on land (or in air) = more O2 needed faster

  12. Fish Reproduction Usually external fertilization Large numbers of eggs are fertilized during Spawning – when fish reproduce

  13. Sockeye Salmon

  14. Barndoor skate (Dipturus laevis) Cartilage Fish Skate Ectothermic Sharks, Skates and Rays fertilization is internal-most are born live Some sharks lay eggs

  15. Variety of Rays There are many different types of rays including stingrays, electric rays, butterfly rays, round rays, manta rays, guitarfish, and sawfish.

  16. Early aquatic adaptations • Teeth (everyone) – evolved from skin Shift from scavenging to predation (lampreys) • Jaws (sharks and bony fish) provide biting force

  17. Later aquatic adaptations • Bony fish evolve swim bladder • This is an air bag that allows fish to move up and down in water-called buoyancy • sharks sink when not swimming • Swim bladder adapted to be lungs on land

  18. Transitional fish / amphibian? • Tiktaalik roseae

  19. Amphibians Salamander Frog Toad

  20. Amphibians on land • Four legs are an adaptation to walk on land-These are adapted fish fins at right angles from body • Ectotherms- Body temperature the same as the surrounding temperature. • Hibernate or Estivate depending on climate

  21. 3 Chamber Heart 2 atria – 1 from body (deoxygenated), 1 from lungs (oxygenated) 1 ventricle – pumps blood to lungs and body O2 through lungs and moist skin called coetaneous respiration

  22. 3 chamber heart Advantage of a 3 chambered heart Blood getting to body cells faster (heart pumps directly to body) Disadvantage of a 3 chambered heart: Deoxygenated blood mixes with oxygenated blood in atria

  23. Amphibian Reproduction • Must live near water for 2 reasons 1) External fertilization - Reproduce in water (lay eggs there) egg  tadpole  young frog  adult Called Metamorphosis 2) Go to water to keep skin moist to obtain oxygen

  24. Bullfrogs Eat Everything

  25. Reptiles

  26. Reptiles turtle crocodile snake

  27. Adaptation-Claws • Strong, bony skeletons and toes with claws • Claws-aid in climbing, digging and movement in various terrains

  28. More Reptile Adaptations • Adaptations evolved which allow reptiles to live totally on land. 1) Scales to prevent water loss 2) The most important adaptation for living on land is the amniotic egg

  29. Reptilian Scales

  30. Eggs • Amniotic egg – has all the water and nutrients inside for embryo to survive

  31. Reptile limitations • Disadvantage of Ectothermy: • Must live in warm areas • Cannot be active at night

  32. Regulating Body Temperature • Ectotherm (“cold-blooded”) – animal does not maintain a constant body temperature Outside Temp = Body Temp

  33. Ectothermy • Become sluggish in very cold temperature • Bask in the sun or seek shade

  34. Advantages No energy used to keep warm Disadvantages Restricted to warm climates only Active only during day Ectothermy

  35. Heart • Heart of most Reptiles-3 chambers • Disadvantage: Oxygenated and Deoxygenated blood mixes-less efficient • Crocodiles and alligators have a ventricle that is totally separated into two pumping chambers-4 chambers

  36. Circulation Double loop circulation

  37. Transitional bird / reptile • Archaeopteryx

  38. Birds

  39. Birds • Adaptations for Flight: Feathers, wings, hollow bones • Adaptation for living on land: Amniotic Egg like reptiles

  40. Endothermy • Endotherm (“warm-blooded”) keeping a constant body temperature Advantages: • Can be active even in colder biomes • Can be active at night (nocturnal predators) Disadvantages: • Requires lots of energy (must find food often)

  41. Hummingbirds

  42. 4 chamber heart 2 atria – 1 from body (deoxygenated), 1 from lungs (oxygenated) 2 ventricles – 1 pumps to lungs , 1 pumps to body

  43. 4 chamber heart • Even more energy needed for cells • Birds = energy for flight • Mammals = energy for large brains • NO mixture of blood in 4 chamber heart

  44. Digestive and Excretory system • Food passes from the mouth cavity straight to the esophagus. • The crop stores and moistens food. • Then passes through the gizzard, a muscular organ that kneads and crushes the food

  45. Respiratory System • Air enters nostrils at base of beakDown trachea past song boxenters two primary bronchiito lungs • 75% bypasses the lungs and flows directly to posterior to sacssacs connect with air spaces in bones, filling the hollow bones with air. • When bird exhales the carbon dioxide rich air from the lungs, oxygen rich air is forced out of the posterior air sacs into lungs.

  46. Adapations for Flight Air sacs allow birds to take in more oxygen for cellular respiration Hollow bones is a adaptation to decrease weight take in more oxygen for cellular respiration.

  47. Transitional reptile / mammal Egg-laying Mammals or Monotremes Platypus