vertebrate classes all in chordate phylum l.
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Vertebrate Classes All in Chordate Phylum. All vertebrates have…. Bilateral symmetry Fully developed coelom with organs Closed circulatory system Endoskeleton with spinal cord. Vertebrate Classes. Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals. Orders of Fish. Lamprey and hagfish (jawless).

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Vertebrate Classes All in Chordate Phylum

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all vertebrates have
All vertebrates have…
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Fully developed coelom with organs
  • Closed circulatory system
  • Endoskeleton with spinal cord
vertebrate classes
Vertebrate Classes






orders of fish
Orders of Fish

Lamprey and hagfish (jawless)

bony fish

Shark (cartilage)

lampreys hagfish jawless fish
Lampreys/HagfishJawless Fish
  • Lampreys attach to fish-parasites
  • Have “round sucker like mouths”
  • Hagfish are Scavengers of dead and dying fish on ocean bottom
sharks skates rays
Sharks, Skates, Rays
  • Jaws
  • The shark’s mouth has 6 to 20 rows of backward-pointing teeth
  • Some can detect blood from an injured animal as far as 500 miles away
  • No swim bladder
bony fish
Bony Fish

Most are familiar fishes and include snake-like eels, salmon, trout, bass, herring, tallapia and lantern fish

(most fish we eat)

bony fish8
Bony Fish

Fishes are the most numerous of all vertebrates and most widespread in their distribution


obtain oxygen
Obtain Oxygen
  • Fish obtain O2 through their gills
  • Fish can extract 85 % of the

oxygen passing over the gills

  • Blood goes to the gills, is oxygenated and sent to all parts of the body
  • Single loop circulation in fish

Fish have a two chambered heart.

  • This is efficient for the fish since it is in water, but would not work for land animals who need more energy.
2 chamber heart
2 chamber heart

The disadvantage of a 2 chambered heart is its slow delivery

MUCH more energy required to move on land (or in air) = more O2 needed faster

fish reproduction
Fish Reproduction

Usually external fertilization

Large numbers of eggs are fertilized during Spawning – when fish reproduce

cartilage fish

Barndoor skate (Dipturus laevis)

Cartilage Fish



Sharks, Skates and Rays fertilization is internal-most are born live

Some sharks lay eggs

variety of rays
Variety of Rays

There are many different

types of rays including


electric rays,

butterfly rays, round rays,

manta rays, guitarfish,

and sawfish.

early aquatic adaptations
Early aquatic adaptations
  • Teeth (everyone) – evolved from skin

Shift from scavenging

to predation (lampreys)

  • Jaws (sharks and bony fish)

provide biting force

later aquatic adaptations
Later aquatic adaptations
  • Bony fish evolve swim bladder
  • This is an air bag that allows fish to move up and down in water-called buoyancy
  • sharks sink when not swimming
  • Swim bladder adapted to be lungs on land




amphibians on land
Amphibians on land
  • Four legs are an adaptation to walk on land-These are adapted fish fins at right angles from body
  • Ectotherms- Body temperature the same as the surrounding temperature.
  • Hibernate or Estivate depending on climate
3 chamber heart
3 Chamber Heart

2 atria – 1 from body (deoxygenated), 1 from lungs (oxygenated)

1 ventricle – pumps blood to lungs and body

O2 through lungs and moist skin called coetaneous respiration

3 chamber heart25
3 chamber heart

Advantage of a 3 chambered heart

Blood getting to body cells faster (heart pumps directly to body)

Disadvantage of a 3 chambered heart:

Deoxygenated blood mixes with oxygenated blood in atria

amphibian reproduction
Amphibian Reproduction
  • Must live near water for 2 reasons

1) External fertilization - Reproduce in water (lay eggs there)

egg  tadpole  young frog  adult

Called Metamorphosis

2) Go to water to keep skin moist

to obtain oxygen





adaptation claws
  • Strong, bony skeletons and toes with claws
      • Claws-aid in climbing, digging and movement in various terrains
more reptile adaptations
More Reptile Adaptations
  • Adaptations evolved which allow reptiles to live totally on land.

1) Scales to prevent water loss

2) The most important adaptation for living on land is the

amniotic egg

  • Amniotic egg – has all the water and nutrients inside for embryo to survive
reptile limitations
Reptile limitations
  • Disadvantage of Ectothermy:
  • Must live in warm areas
  • Cannot be active at night
regulating body temperature
Regulating Body Temperature
  • Ectotherm (“cold-blooded”) –

animal does not maintain a constant body temperature

Outside Temp = Body Temp

  • Become sluggish in very cold temperature
  • Bask in the sun or seek shade

No energy used to keep warm


Restricted to warm climates only

Active only during day

  • Heart of most Reptiles-3 chambers
  • Disadvantage: Oxygenated and Deoxygenated blood mixes-less efficient
  • Crocodiles and alligators

have a ventricle that is totally separated into two pumping chambers-4 chambers


Double loop circulation

  • Adaptations for Flight: Feathers, wings, hollow bones
  • Adaptation for living on land:

Amniotic Egg like reptiles

  • Endotherm (“warm-blooded”) keeping a constant body



  • Can be active even in colder biomes
  • Can be active at night

(nocturnal predators)


  • Requires lots of energy

(must find food often)

4 chamber heart
4 chamber heart

2 atria – 1 from body (deoxygenated), 1 from lungs (oxygenated)

2 ventricles – 1 pumps to lungs , 1 pumps to body

4 chamber heart46
4 chamber heart
  • Even more energy needed for cells
    • Birds = energy for flight
    • Mammals = energy for large brains
  • NO mixture of blood in 4 chamber heart
digestive and excretory system
Digestive and Excretory system
  • Food passes from the mouth cavity straight to the esophagus.
  • The crop stores and moistens food.
  • Then passes through the gizzard, a muscular organ that kneads and crushes the food
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Air enters nostrils at base of beakDown trachea past song boxenters two primary bronchiito lungs
  • 75% bypasses the lungs and flows directly to posterior to sacssacs connect with air spaces in bones, filling the hollow bones with air.
  • When bird exhales the carbon dioxide rich air from the lungs, oxygen rich air is forced out of the posterior air sacs into lungs.
adapations for flight
Adapations for Flight

Air sacs allow birds to take in more oxygen for cellular respiration

Hollow bones is a adaptation to decrease weight take in more oxygen for cellular respiration.

transitional reptile mammal
Transitional reptile / mammal

Egg-laying Mammals or Monotremes


evolution and adaptations
Evolution andAdaptations

Mammals belong

to the class Mammalia, which includes 4000 species

Most dominant land animals on earth.

circulatory system
Circulatory System
  • Mammalian heart has 4 chambers
  • Mammals have a muscle , the diaphragm that aids in lung breathing
Adaptations that distinguish Mammals from other vertebrates:
  • Hair which helps in insulation
  • Mammary glands that produce milk for the young.
  • 19 orders of mammals
  • 17 nourish unborn young by the placenta
  • The others are: egg laying Monotremesand Marsupials
  • Marsupials give birth to tiny immature young that crawl to a pouch on the mothers belly immediately after they are born.
characteristics of placental mammals
Characteristics of Placental Mammals
  • Placental mammals carry unborn young in the uterus until young can survive in the wild.
  • Oxygen and nutrients are transferred from mother’s blood to baby’s blood
placental characteristics
Placental Characteristics
  • Theplacentais a membrane providing oxygen and nutrients and removal of CO2 and waste between the mother and developing young
  • Gestation period is the time which mammals develop in mother’s uterus

Hairy Saki-Monkey

  • Also endothermic
  • Hair helps to insulate, maintain internal body temperature

Paraguaian Hairy

Dwarf Porcupine

Hairy Armadillo

  • Large brain size (learning / communicating)
  • Disadvantage: longer time needed for brain development
  • Solution: longer gestation period in mom and intensive parental care early on (including milk from mammary glands)