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Using a Framework of 6 Key Principles to Increase the Effectiveness of Smaller Classes Maurice Galton Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge UK Professional Development Activities on Small Class Teaching - Seminar 14 July 2010 Hong Kong
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Faculty of Education,
University of Cambridge UK
Professional Development Activities on Small Class Teaching - Seminar
14 July 2010 Hong Kong
Whenever possible exploration precedes instruction and examples are situated in contexts that are meaningful to the pupils
Mainly through whole
classes interactive teaching
and group work
… using plan-do-review cycle…
with emphasis on
Mainly by direct instruction
to whole class
‘dialogic’ questioning and
extended written work
Assessment mainly through
pupil reflection, self-evaluation
and class debriefing…
Assessment mainly by
short, quick questioning and
short answer written testsMaking Pupils Metacognitively Wise
Which of the following tell pupils about learning? (success criteria which are shared with pupils)
Low level (transmission): to recall, define, identify, state, recognise, name, list, measure
Medium level (application): to use, show, perform, explain, illustrate, predict, interpret
Higher level (understanding): toclassify, design, organise, compose, discover, summarise, conclude, separate
e.g.To count up to one hundred in tens and to use this method to perform simple calculations more rapidly. (low to medium level)
e.g. To memorise a poem and demonstrate comprehension by acting out the parts of various characters in the narrative. (low to medium level)
In promoting higher level objectives, pupils need to partake in more thoughtful discourse. This requires teachers
Change in questioning strategies to promote dialogic talk:
When endeavouring to apply newly acquired knowledge to novel situations, pupils generally find it easier to gain understanding through ‘learning by doing’. It helps if
Group and pair work often fails because
As a group (or individually)
What teachers of small class might look for
Hattie, J. and Timperley, H (2007) The Power of Feedback, Revue of Educational Research, 77 (1):81-112.
Hattie, J. (2005) The paradox of reducing class size and improving learning outcomes,International Journal of Educational Research, 43 (6) 387-425.
Watkins, C (2003) Learning: A sense-makers guide, London: Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL).
Galton, M. (2002) Learning and Teaching in the Primary Classroom, London: Sage Publication.
Wood, D. (1998) How Children Think and Learn, Oxford: Blackwells.