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Tuesday: 100 point test (30 points written, 70 points multiple choice) Pages you can cross out from your packet 47, 53-55, 63 Atoms and Molecules Structure of Matter Bonds Chem. reactions Photosynthesis How plants use the sun’s energy to make stored sugar Leaf structure Chloroplasts

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tuesday 100 point test 30 points written 70 points multiple choice
Tuesday: 100 point test (30 points written, 70 points multiple choice)

Pages you can cross out from your packet

47, 53-55, 63

slide2
Atoms and Molecules

Structure of Matter

Bonds

Chem. reactions

Photosynthesis

How plants use the sun’s energy to make stored sugar

Leaf structure

Chloroplasts

using the products of photosynthesis
Using the products of photosynthesis
  • Plants and animals use the glucose (carbs) produced
    • Plants have tissues to transport glucose throughout plant (phloem)
    • Plants also make cellulose, giving plant support/structure
    • Plants store carbs in starch, which we eat in corn, potatoes, wheat, etc.
slide6
Digestion

How we break down matter to use it as energy

Enzymes

Biomolecules

What food is broken down into and used for

Ex. Proteins are broken down into amino acids

slide7
Cellular Respiration
    • Cells using oxygen to make useable energy from food
    • Occurs in the cytoplasm and MITOCHONDRIA of the cell
    • Aerobic vs. anaerobic
slide10
Autotrophs: makes its own food through photosynthesis

Examples? Trees, flowers, grass

  • Heterotrophs: eat others to get food

Examples? Humans, lions, bugs

slide12

3) In the top half of the mesophyll layer called the palisade because that is where the most chloroplasts are

slide22

Products of photosynthesis?A. C6H1206- stored by plant.- Eaten by Heterotrophs- used by plant for cell respirationB. O2- waste released into airUsed for cell respiration

importance to photosynthesis
Importance to photosynthesis
  • Mesophyll- contains chloroplasts, the site of photosynthesis
  • Stomata: holes in the bottom of the leaf that allow water, carbon dioxide and oxygen to pass through
  • Guard cells: open and close depending on the conditions of the environment
  • Vein: carry water and nutrients throughout plant
guard cells
Guard cells
  • http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab9/stomamov.html
why do leafs change color in the fall
Why do leafs change color in the fall?
  • As summer ends and autumn comes, the days get shorter and shorter. This is how the trees "know" to begin getting ready for winter.
slide26
Along with the green pigment are yellow to orange pigments, carotenes and xanthophyll pigments which, for example, give the orange color to a carrot.
  • Most of the year these colors are masked by great amounts of green coloring.
slide28
Leaf color comes from pigments. Pigments are natural substances produced by leaf cells. The three pigments that color leaves are:
    • chlorophyll (green)
    • carotenoid (yellow, orange, and brown)
    • anthocyanins (red)
  • Chlorophyll is the most important of the three. Without the chlorophyll in leaves, trees wouldn't be able to use sunlight to produce food.
  • Carotenoid create bright yellows and oranges in familiar fruits and vegetables. Corn, carrots, and bananas are just a few of the many plants colored by carotenoid.
  • Anthocyanins add the color red to plants, including cranberries, red apples, cherries, strawberries and others.
slide29
Chlorophyll and carotenoid are in leaf cells all the time during the growing season. But the chlorophyll covers the carotenoid -- that's why summer leaves are green, not yellow or orange. Most anthocyanins are produced only in autumn, and only under certain conditions. Not all trees can make anthocyanins.
slide30
SO what happens?
  • During Fall: changes in the length of daylight and changes in temperature
    • leaves stop their food-making process.
    • The chlorophyll breaks down, the green color disappears, and the yellow to orange colors become visible and give the leaves part of their fall splendor
slide32
At the same time other chemical changes may occur, which form additional colors through the development of red anthocyanin pigments.
    • Some mixtures give rise to the reddish and purplish fall colors of trees such as dogwoods and sumacs, while others give the sugar maple its brilliant orange.
slide33
The autumn foliage of some trees show only yellow colors. Others, like many oaks, display mostly browns. All these colors are due to the mixing of varying amounts of the chlorophyll residue and other pigments in the leaf during the fall season.