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  1. GERALD R. FORD PRESIDENTIAL MUSEUM Grand Rapids, Michigan Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option AE Senior Thesis Spring 2003

  2. Presentation Outline PROJECT OVERVIEW EXISTING MECHANICAL CONDITIONS PROPOSED REDESIGN SYSTEM DESIGN SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION COST ANALYSIS ACOUSTICAL ISSUES STRUCTURAL ISSUES CONCLUSIONS Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  3. Building Overview ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES PROJECT TEAM 56,000 ft2 two-story; triangular in shape Architects – Peck Peck Assoc. 300-foot glass wall providing panoramic view MEP – Leach Wallace Assoc. Scored cast-in-place sandblasted concrete exterior façade Structural – McMullan & Assoc., Inc. Civil – Fishbeck, Thompson, Carr & Huber Garden outlining front entrance to large pool and fountain Fire Protection – Gage-Babcock & Assoc., Inc. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS Renovation Space – 15,110 ft2 New Construction – 11,080 ft2 8 Step Phasing Plan Total Construction Cost – $4,497,659 Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  4. Mechanical Systems Existing Conditions DESIGN CRITERIA NARA guidelines Vibration isolation and fire retardant sound absorption Air Filtration System Automatic Temperature Control Clean steam injection system DESIGN CONDITIONS Collection Storage – 65°± 2° F / 30% - 45% RH Permanent/Temporary Exhibit – 70°± 2° F / 30% - 45% RH Exhibit Prep – 70°± 2° F / 30% - 45% RH Public/Office Spaces/Theatre – 70 - 76°± 5° F / 30% - 50% RH Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  5. Mechanical Systems Existing Conditions AIR SYSTEMS WATER SYSTEMS AHU 1 – Public Areas Chilled Water • Modular VAV Air Handler • VAV Terminal Units • Air-cooled Chiller • 40% Glycol Solution AHU 2 & 3 – Collection/Exhibit Prep Hot Water Heating • Two DX units • Air-cooled Condensers • 5 Modular Boilers AHU 5 – Temporary/Permanent Exhibit • Constant Volume • Individual Hot Water Reheat Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  6. Proposed Redesign DESIGN OBJECTIVES Meet Established Design Criteria Proper air conditioning, filtration and temperature control Higher Life-Cycle Cost Savings Reduce Energy Consumption Environmentally Friendly Components Reduce Toxic Emissions Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  7. Proposed Redesign Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System Utilize Steady Temperatures Beneath the Earth Series of Pipes Buried Up To 500 Below Surface Heat Pump Singly Packaged Unit Heating and Cooling Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  8. Proposed Redesign Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System System Types Feasibility Issues - Open-Loop - Closed-Loop Vertical Arrangement Horizontal Arrangement • Available Land Area • Existing Water Sources • Budget Advantages Disadvantages • Reduced Annual Energy • Consumption • Lower Maintenance Costs • Rebates • Higher Capital Cost • Extensive Drilling • Lack of Experienced • Installers Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  9. Proposed Redesign Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System Ford Museum Site Characteristics Multiple Parking Lots 600-ft. from Grand River North to South Utilities Load Requirements 150 Ton Max Cooling Load Cooling Load Dominant NORTH LOGICAL LOOP SELECTION? CLOSED-LOOP VERTICAL SYSTEM Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  10. Scope of Redesign Complete GCHP System Unitary Heat Pumps Ground-Loop Water-to-air Heat Pumps In Each of 33 Zones 28 Horizontal Units / 5 Vertical Units Designed To Meet Total Cooling Load Hybrid System Unitary Heat Pumps Ground-Loop Same Requirements Designed To Meet Total Heating Load Supplemental Cooling Tower Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  11. Scope of Redesign Systems To Be Removed 202 Ton Air-Cooled Chiller Heating Water and Chilled Water Pumps 5 Modular Boilers Systems To Remain VAV Terminals Air-Handling Units Filtrations Equipment Air-Cooled Condensers DDC Logic System Ductwork and Appurtenances Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  12. Ground-Loop Design Design Methods Steady-State Heat Transfer – 1999 ASHRAE HVAC Applications Heating Length: Function of: Building Load Thermal Resistance Liquid Temperatures Cooling Length: Load Factors Power Input Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  13. Ground-Loop Design Ground Characteristics Average Ground Temperature – Grand Rapids, MI 50° F Subsoil Conditions • 50 - ft. Light Sand • 200 - ft. Soft Clay • + 200 - ft. Shale and Gypsum Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  14. Ground-Loop Design 100 % Geothermal System Entering Water Temperature 75° F Exiting Water Temperature 85° F Hybrid System Total Cooling Length Entering Water Temperature 41,758 - ft. 40° F Exiting Water Temperature 34° F Total Heating Length 18,993 - ft. Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  15. Ground-Loop Construction Typical Piping Layout Objectives Materials Internal Distribution Minimal Capital Costs External Distribution - PVC Sch. 40 Pipe 6-in. Ø or Less - Necessary Valves - Reverse-Return - HDPE Pipe - 1-in. U-tubes - 6-in. Boreholes - Thermally Enhanced Grout - Reverse-Return Feasible Configuration Orderly Timeframe Equipment - Purge Charts - Pressure Test Units - Geothermal Drilling Unit - Geothermal Grouting Unit - Butt and Socket Fusion Unit Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  16. Ground-Loop Construction Optimization Study Purpose: Most Cost Effective Ground-Loop Design Driving Cost Factor: Cost to Drill Vertical Boreholes Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  17. Ground-Loop Construction Optimization Study Assumptions : Drill Rig #1 - below 200 - ft. - $8,000 per week - 15 min. set-up and dismantle for each bore Grouting output is 1000 linear feet per day Length of 3-in. & 4-in. HDPE depends on number of circuits Drill Rig #2 - between 200 & 350 - ft. - $10,000 per week - 30 min. set-up and dismantle for each bore Annual pumping power present value cost Drill Rig #3 - above 350 - ft. - $12,000 per week - 45 min. set-up and dismantle for each bore Therefore Optimize: Number of Boreholes vs. Borehole Depth Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  18. LBOREHOLE (ft) Total Cost ($) NBOREHOLES Ground-Loop Construction Optimization Study 100% Geothermal System: 41,758-ft. Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  19. LBOREHOLE (ft) Total Cost ($) NBOREHOLES Ground-Loop Construction Optimization Study Hybrid System: 18,993-ft. Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  20. Ground-Loop Construction Optimization Study 100% Geothermal System Resulting Layout: Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  21. Ground-Loop Construction Optimization Study Hybrid System Resulting Layout: Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  22. $ 294,121 - $ 132,397 Ground-Loop Construction Optimization Study System Comparison: $ 161,724 100% Geothermal System Loop Construction Cost: $ 294,121 Drill Time: 8.5 Weeks Hybrid System Loop Construction Cost: $ 132,397 Drill Time: 3.0 Weeks Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  23. Ground-Loop Construction Phasing Sequence 100% Geothermal System 2 – Shop Drawings; Mobilize 2.1 – Test Bore 2.2 – Pavement Removal 2.3 – Site Survey & Borefield Set-up 2.4 – Drilling and Trenching 2.5 – Piping & Grouting 2.6 – Internal Piping & Equipment 2.7 – Connections & Backfill 2.8 – Flush and Test System 3 – Relocate Staff to Addition Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  24. Ground-Loop Construction Phasing Sequence Hybrid System Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  25. Cost Analysis Capital Costs Existing Mechanical System Equipment/Materials: $ 252,760 $ 429,096 100% Geothermal System $ 334,169 Equipment: $ 178,627 $ 252,760 Drilling: $ 93,056 Pipe and Grouting: $ 124,770 Site Costs: $ 32,643 Hybrid System Equipment: $ 229,278 Drilling: $ 26,767 Pipe and Grouting: $ 64,433 Site Costs: $ 13,691 Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  26. Cost Analysis Annual Energy Costs Existing Mechanical System Cost per kWh Off-Peak: Cooling Season: 10.54 ¢ 401,611 kWh $ 95,465 On-Peak: Heating Season: 9.94 ¢ 116,949 kWh / 12,039 therms $ 74,458 $ 69,920 100% Geothermal System Cost per therm Cooling Season: 37.86 ¢ 228,948 kWh Heating Season: 162,525 kWh Hybrid System Cooling Season: 243,122 kWh Heating Season: 174,250 kWh Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  27. Cost Analysis Life-Cycle Cost Analysis System Comparison: Total Present Value Life-Cycle Cost ($) Simple Payback Period (years) Net Savings ($) System Type Base Case - Existing System 1,822,246 - - 100% Geothermal System 1,088,443 304,717 6 Hybrid System 1,510,027 312,219 4 Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  28. Cost Analysis System Emissions Emissions Summary: Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  29. Acoustical Analysis Objectives Heat Pump Placement Minimize Added Cost for Attenuation RC 30 – 40 Methods Find Critical Supply Air Paths Combine SPL From AHU & Heat Pump Determine Insertion Losses in Duct Run RC Mark II Room Criteria Rating Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  30. Acoustical Analysis Critical Path #1 - Curator 120 Without Sound Attenuation RC 43 X With Sound Attenuating Device RC 31 ? With Duct Alterations - Remove Hard Duct - Extend Flex Duct 3-ft. RC 37 Subjective Rating Perception : Occupant Rating : (HF) Hiss Marginal Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  31. Acoustical Analysis Critical Path #2 - Collection Storage 111 Without Sound Attenuation RC 47 X With Sound Attenuating Device RC 32 Subjective Rating Perception : Occupant Rating : (HF) Hiss Acceptable Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  32. Acoustical Analysis Critical Path #3 - Permanent Exhibit 207 With Original Sound Attenuator RC 43 X With New Attenuating Device and Location RC 37 Subjective Rating Perception : Occupant Rating : (HF) Hiss Marginal Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  33. Acoustical Analysis Critical Path #4 - Temporary Exhibit 219 Attenuator Location Without Sound Attenuation From AHU Outlet To Heat Pump Outlet RC 44 X With Sound Attenuating Device RC 32 RC 39 Subjective Rating Subjective Rating Perception : Occupant Rating : (HF) Hiss Unacceptable Perception : Occupant Rating : (HF) Hiss Unacceptable Additional Design Considerations • Addition of Elbows • AHU Fan Selection • Acoustical Duct Lining Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  34. Structural Analysis Purpose Determine Impact of Cooling Tower on Roof Existing Conditions 3000 lb Cooling Tower 28K7 Open Web Steel Joists (297 plf max service load) (203 allowable live load) 40-ft. Span at 5-ft. O.C. 35 psf Snow Load (IBC 2000 for Grand Rapids, Michigan) 15 psf Superimposed Dead Load Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  35. 1’ 6’ 750 psf (typ.) wl V = 40’ 2 RA RB Structural Analysis Calculations Equivalent Distributed Load Based on Shear RA = 6350 lb RB = 5150 lb w = 317 lb/ft 317 lb/ft > 297 lb/ft NOT ADEQUATE Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  36. 6100 ft·lb 6350 ft·lb 5350 ft·lb 3850 ft·lb 3100 ft·lb 5150 ft·lb 5150 · (20.6’) MMAX = wl2 M = 2 8 Structural Analysis Solution Use 2 – 28K7 SP Open Web Joists Equivalent Distributed Load Based on Bending w = 265.2 lb/ft 265 lb/ft < 297 lb/ft Solution OK Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  37. Conclusions Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System 100% Geothermal System Feasible Design of 120 Total Boreholes at 350-ft. Deep Significantly High Capital Cost 6 Year Payback Large Emissions Reduction Hybrid System Lower Impact on Surrounding Site Lowered Capital Cost 4 Year Payback Slightly Higher Emissions Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  38. Conclusions Comparison to Existing Mechanical System Cost Concerns: Original Mechanical Budget of $1.18 million 14.9% Increase For 100% Geothermal System 6.9% Increase For Hybrid System Sound Attenuation and Structural Support Costs Other Concerns: Additional Internal Space For Vertical Heat Pumps Experienced Local Installers Most Practical Solution: HYBRID SYSTEM Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  39. Acknowledgements Special Thanks to the AE Faculty Dr. Bahnfleth Prof. Burroughs Also Thanks to Aryln Grube of Enviro-Tech, Inc. and Nick Nucci of Leach Wallace and Associates To the AE 5th- Year Class of 2002 - 2003 Family & Friends Including Erin Falconer & Residents of 242 South Atherton Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  40. Questions ? Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  41. CostTOTAL ($) CostTOTAL ($) NBOREHOLES LBOREHOLE (ft) Ground-Loop Construction Optimization Study 100% Geothermal System: 41,758-ft. Cost vs. Length of Bore Cost vs. # of Boreholes Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  42. RC-II Method For Critical Path #1: Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  43. Ground-Loop Construction Optimization Study EES Input Parameters: Head loss for various size HDPE pipe Total length of pipe, # of boreholes and borehole depth Pump power requirements for longest run Grouting costs including labor and equipment Pipe costs including labor, fusion equipment, and fittings Site costs, including trenching and pavement and dirt removal Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  44. Ground-Loop Construction Life-Cycle Emission Reduction Emissions Summary: Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  45. Ground-Loop Design Building Loads 28 Horizontal Units / 5 Vertical Units 150 Ton Block Cooling Load 70 Ton Block Heating Load Design Objectives Incorporate Efficient / Cost Effective System Meeting Building Load Requirements Minimal Disruption To Surroundings Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  46. 100% Geothermal System Mechanical Room Schematic: Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI

  47. Hybrid System Mechanical Room Schematic: Gerald R. Ford Museum Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option Grand Rapids, MI