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The FAO-CITES Relationship: A Model to Consider?. Kevern Cochrane, FIMF. The Appendices: CITES Tools. Appendix I: species threatened with extinction. Trade permitted only in exceptional circumstances.

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the appendices cites tools
The Appendices: CITES Tools
  • Appendix I: species threatened with extinction. Trade permitted only in exceptional circumstances.
  • Appendix II: species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but where trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival.
  • Appendix III: at request of individual countries in order to gain assistance from other CITES Parties in controlling the trade.

Cooperation between FAO and CITES has been growing in the last 9 years and encompasses a range of activities of mutual interest. This presentation will focus on the cooperation on the CITES listing criteria and amendment proposals

some background
Some Background
  • CoP10, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1997
    • a proposal was tabled for the creation of a working group for marine fisheries.
    • caution that CITES criteria might not be appropriate for exploited and managed fishery resources.
  • COFI-FT, Bremen, Germany, 1998: agreed FAO would consider suitability of CITES criteria for commercially-exploited aquatic species.
  • Initiated on-going discussion on role of FAO, complicated by differences of opinion on the role for CITES in relation to conservation and sustainable use of commercially-exploited aquatic species
some concerns expressed by fao members
Some Concerns Expressed by FAO Members
  • Need to refine the criteria and guidelines to reflect the specific characteristics aquatic resources.
  • Differences of opinion about the intention of Appendix II (reduce the risk of extinction and/or promote sustainable use?).
  • Implications of the ‘look-alike’ clause.
  • Need to minimize unnecessary negative impact on fishing industry and communities.
  • Need for greater input from national fisheries agencies in elaboration of proposals and from FAO in evaluation of proposals.
  • De-listing procedures need to be objective, responsive and flexible to cope with the resource variability.

“Some delegations expressed the view that CITES could provide a useful instrument, complementary to traditional fisheries management, in protecting fishery resources from extinction and in promoting their sustainable use.”

e.g. queen conch

  • February 2002: FAO approved recommendations for changes to CITES listing criteria.
  • July 2004: FAO convened ad hoc Expert Advisory Panel to evaluate listing proposals to CoP-13 for fishery species
  • October 2004 (CoP-13):
    • CITES adopted revised criteria including main FAO recommendations;
    • CITES received and considered recommendations from advisory Panel.
  • October 2006. MOU between CITES and FAO signed after 3½ years of negotiations.
  • March 2007. FAO ad hoc Advisory Panel will meet to consider 7 proposals to CoP-14.
resilience the ability to rebound after perturbation
Resilience: the ability to rebound after perturbation
  • PRODUCTIVITY is related to:
      • FECUNDITY 
      • GROWTH RATE 
      • LONGEVITY 
appendix 1a small population size








appendix ii quantitative decline criterion
Appendix II : quantitative (decline) criterion

Consideration could be given to listing on Appendix II if:

  • the current extent-of-decline is below 50% AND
  • the recent-rate-of-decline will reduce the population to below the Appendix I ‘extent’ criterion within 10 years AND
  • the decline has been measured over a reasonable period (e.g. 10 years) or where evidence that decline is continuing
quantitative assessment and rigorous evaluation
Quantitative Assessment and Rigorous Evaluation
  • Need for quantitative assessments whenever possible (otherwise qualitative integrated assessment) and that results from those more informative than simpler criteria or single indices...
  • Contested proposals should undergo objective scientific evaluation leading to agreed report which includes all defensible views and interpretations.
cites article xv 2 b external advice
CITES Article XV 2(b): External Advice
  • For marine species, the Secretariat shall... also consult inter-governmental bodies having a function in relation to those species especially with a view to obtaining scientific data these bodies may be able to provide and to ensuring co-ordination with any conservation measures enforced by such bodies.
  • The Secretariat shall communicate the views expressed and data provided by these bodies and its own findings and recommendations to the Parties as soon as possible.
terms of reference of the fao panel
Terms of Reference of the FAO Panel
  • The Panel shall be established by the FAO Secretariat....according to its standard rules and procedures
  • members shall participate in the Panel in their personal capacity
  • will consist of a core group (<= 10) supplemented ... by up to 10 specialists on the species being considered
  • ..the Panel shall:
    • assess each proposal from a scientific perspective
    • comment...on technical aspects in relation to biology, ecology, trade and management issues, as well as...likely effectiveness for conservation
  • the Panel will consider the information in the proposal and any additional information received from FAO Members and relevant RFMOs.
  • The report shall be distributed to all FAO members and the CITES Secretariat with a request they distribute it to all CITES Parties.
the decision process
The Decision Process

Listing proposals

submitted to CITES

CITES Secretariat

informs FAO

FAO convenes

Expert Panel

FAO invites comment

from Members and


Expert Panel Report

distributed to FAO and

CITES members

CITES Parties vote

on Proposal

(66% majority)

the fao cites relationship a model to consider17
The FAO-CITES Relationship: A Model to Consider?

Very good progress has been made but much work still needs to be done, including in reconciliation of different views and opinions.