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Risk Management and PINs. Why risk management is so important Why HSRs should be “qualified” to issue PINs. Training & Safety Consultants. 1. Risk Management On Board a Vessel. Everyone has a duty of care regarding their own health and safety.

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Risk Management and PINs

Why risk management is so important

Why HSRs should be “qualified” to issue PINs

Training & Safety Consultants


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Risk Management On Board a Vessel

  • Everyone has a duty of care regarding their own health and safety

  • Part of the HSR’s role is to carry out inspections where they relate to managing risks.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • The operator has the primary responsibility for managing risk on board a vessel


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Managing Risk On Board a Vessel

  • Immediately after an accident, incident or near miss

It should be done all the time so it becomes normal practice.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • Managing risk is not something that is done immediately before an inspection, or


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Workplace Culture

  • What level of risk is involved, and

  • How to manage it.

Not everyone sees the same element of risk. What is risky to one person may be absolutely normal to another.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • Getting people to actually recognise there is a risk


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Why Risks Are Not Managed

  • It takes forward thinking

  • Crew need to be attuned to particular situations outside of their immediate task

In some instances workers continue to do particular activities quite oblivious to the dangers to themselves and others.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • Crewmen and women may not be observant


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HSRs Job

  • Build a culture within the workforce that embraces a safe approach to every task

Not just the bigger activities that need planning and permits, but everyday tasks.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • Bring risk management to the attention of the members of his/her work group


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Positive and Proactive Culture to Safety

  • They have observed something that could lead to harm or injury

  • Apportioning blame is not part of the culture.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • Means letting everyone know there will not be any repercussions if they report a situation, or


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Normal Practice

But first risks must be identified.

Training & Safety Consultants

Once the workforce understands its role and what is required to keep a vessel safe, the culture begins to grow and over a fairly short period of time, taking a proactive approach to managing risks will become the normal practice.


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  • They enhance and build on the safety management plan

  • There are three types of inspections, regular, special and accident

Training & Safety Consultants

  • Regular ongoing joint audits are commonly called inspections


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Types of Inspections

Inspections are carried out on a recurring basis, for example, every month. The frequency relates to the size of the workplace, the number of workers involved and any other relevant factors, for example, monitoring a recognised risk.

Training & Safety Consultants



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Types of Inspections

Inspections should be conducted when new pieces of equipment are installed; new procedures are put in place, or in response to other changes in the workplace.

These inspections are to ensure new equipment or procedures don’t pose a risk.

Training & Safety Consultants



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Types of Inspections

Inspections are usually conducted after there has been an accident or dangerous occurrence or there is an immediate threat to the health and safety of any workers.

Conducting these inspections is one of the roles of an HSR.

Training & Safety Consultants



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Disrupting Operations

  • The inspection or investigation could take a short time or several hours

The full cooperation of management and the workforce is critical when assessing the root cause of the accident.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • Accident inspections could disrupt operations as the area may have to be isolated


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Management Approach

  • Workers are more likely to be safety conscious if they see it is promoted from the top down.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • For the workforce to fully embrace the concept and practice of managing risk, management must lead by example.


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Being Vigilant

This is how a culture of using safe working practices is developed.

Training & Safety Consultants

HSR’s need to encourage their peers to be vigilant about reporting any actual or perceived hazards, any systems that are not working properly, tasks that could be done in a safer way and the safer use of equipment.


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HSR’s Role

  • Have excellent observation skills

  • Communicate effectively with operators, employers and the workforce

  • Be good negotiators

These are all part of the consultative mechanisms that play a key role in the cooperation between management and employees

Training & Safety Consultants

  • Lead by example and respond quickly to any situation


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Often quick action can save a more serious situation from developing.

Training & Safety Consultants

HSRs must be prepared to intervene immediately when something has been observed that could lead to an unsafe practice, for example, a worker not wearing his PPE.


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Lines of Communication

  • Encourage people to take a positive approach to managing risk

  • Encourage people to keep their workplace safe

These three things will make the vessel run more efficiently and people will develop a natural instinct to use safe work practices.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • Keep all lines of communication open


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Qualified means having completed the necessary five-day training and therefore competent.

This has led to quite a debate at some levels.

Although it is clear from the Act that strict guidelines are in place and should be followed, HSRs should know what is required before, during and after a PIN has been issued.

Training & Safety Consultants

Should HSRs be “qualified” before they can issue PINs?


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HSRs should:

  • Speak to the person if there has been or potentially may be a breach and negotiate before issuing a PIN

  • Have a good understanding of the legislative requirements and have knowledge of the job, task, activity or system before considering issuing a PIN

Training & Safety Consultants

  • Know if the procedures within the safety management system include issue resolution


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  • This has led to the debate about HSRs being “qualified”

Training & Safety Consultants

  • As an HSR is required to form an opinion regarding the contravention or likely contravention, a new HSR may not have this knowledge or confidence in his or her opinion that something is not being done correctly


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  • If no agreement can be reached after all avenues have been explored, then a PIN may be issued.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • The HSR must consult with the person supervising the work performed by the employee or employees in an attempt to reach agreement on rectifying the breach or likely contravention. This is part of the consultative mechanisms.


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  • As HSRs can also extend the period of the Notice, he or she has to have an opinion that it is appropriate to do so.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • As the Notice can specify the action the person in command is to take, the HSR needs to know the requirements of the Act otherwise he or she will not be able to list on the PIN the remedial measures to correct the situation


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  • This is one of the reasons the HSR needs to know the Act and what is required.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • Once the PIN has been issued, the person, operator or employer, has the right to appeal and the HSR must know the procedure. If, for example, a PIN was issued incorrectly, an inspector may need to investigate the situation


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  • These are far reaching responsibilities that require a particular level of knowledge, understanding and an unbiased approach.

Training & Safety Consultants

  • It is also more likely the person who is receiving the PIN would take it much more seriously from a HSR who is “qualified” to issue it