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Rechargeable Batteries and Battery Testing for Hospitals Cadex Electronics Inc. www.cadex.com www.batteryuniversity.com December 13 th , 2005 Bruce Adams e-mail: bruce.adams@cadex.com Overview Introduction – Cadex Electronics Common Rechargeable Battery Types

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rechargeable batteries and battery testing for hospitals
Rechargeable Batteries and Battery Testing for Hospitals

Cadex Electronics Inc.

www.cadex.com

www.batteryuniversity.com

December 13th, 2005

Bruce Adams

e-mail: bruce.adams@cadex.com

overview
Overview
  • Introduction – Cadex Electronics
  • Common Rechargeable Battery Types
    • Which chemistries are most common?

Global demand data, Freedonia

    • Advantages and limitations of the common chemistries: Nickel Cadmium, Nickel Metal Hydride, Sealed Lead Acid and Lithium Ion.
    • Why batteries fail.
  • Guidelines for Battery Maintenance
  • Selecting the Right Battery Analyzer/Tester
  • Summary –

- Battery Testing. What to Expect

cadex electronics inc overview
Cadex Electronics Inc. – Overview
  • Cadex designs and manufactures battery chargers and battery analyzers/testers for professionals.
  • Established in 1980. 25 years of manufacturing and design excellence.
  • Cadex products are sold in over 100 countries worldwide.
  • Cadex products and practices comply to CSA/UL/CE/FDA standards for safety, and ISO 9001/13485 and GMP forquality.
common rechargeable battery types by global demand
Common Rechargeable Battery Types – byGlobal Demand
  • Lead-acid batteries account for approximately ½ the worlds’ total demand for rechargeable batteries. Mostly for automotive, and power back-up applications (UPS) including medical equipment.
  • Lithium ion batteries shows the fastest growing demand.
common battery types advantages limitations
Common Battery Types - Advantages & limitations

Nickel Cadmium

  • Advantages
    • Fast and simple charge.
    • High number of charge/discharge cycles — if properly maintained, the NiCd provides 1000+ charge/discharge cycles.
    • Forgiving if abused — the NiCd is one of the most rugged rechargeable chemistries.
    • Best chance of recovery following prolonged storage.
  • Limitations
    • Relatively low energy density.
    • Memory effect — the NiCd must periodically be exercised to prevent memory.
    • Has relatively high self-discharge — needs recharging after storage.
common battery types advantages limitations6
Common Battery Types - Advantages & limitations

Nickel Metal Hydride

  • Advantages
    • 30%+ higher capacity compared to standard NiCd.
    • Less prone to memory than NiCd — fewer exercise cycles are required.
  • Limitations
    • More complex charge algorithm needed — the NiMH generates more heat during charge and requires a longer charge time than the NiCd.
    • High self-discharge — typically 50% higher than NiCd.

New chemical additives improve self-discharge but at the expense of lower energy density.

    • Performance degrades if stored at elevated temperatures.
common battery types advantages limitations7
Common Battery Types - Advantages & limitations

Sealed Lead Acid

  • Advantages
    • Inexpensive – lowest cost/watt hour of all common batteries.
    • Low self-discharge.
    • Low Maintenance — no periodic discharge is needed.
  • Limitations
    • Low energy density - poor weight-to-energy ratio. Mostly used mostly in power back-up (UPS) or in wheeled applications.
    • Can not be stored discharged – cell voltage must be maintained above 2.10V/cell.
    • Lowest number of full discharge cycles compared to other battery types.
common battery types advantages limitations8
Common Battery Types - Advantages & limitations

Lithium Ion

  • Advantages
    • High energy density — potential for yet higher capacities.
    • Relatively low self-discharge — self-discharge is less than half that of NiCd and NiMH.
    • Low Maintenance — no periodic discharge is needed; no chemical memory.
  • Limitations
    • Requires protection circuit to maintain voltage and current within safe limits.
    • Subject to aging, even if not in use — storing the battery in a cool place and at 40% state-of-charge reduces the aging effect .
    • Expensive to manufacture — about 40% higher in cost than NiCd.
    • Fuel gauge recalibration required periodically.
slide10

Common Battery Types - Why Rechargeables Fail

  • Every battery has a finite life. Choose hardware (charger) and a field service program (Battery Maintenance) that maximizes the number of charge/discharge cycles from your batteries.
  • Poor charging or storage… “ Heat ”Choose a battery and charger to compliment usage patterns and ambient conditions.
  • NiCd charges cooler than NiMH – if you work in a hot climate NiCd is a better choice, if you charger supports both.
  • Nickel Cadmium and Nickel Metal Hydride batteries develop “Memory”Choose a conditioning charger and professional battery maintenance product.
the battery problem so what can you do

The Battery Problem - So What Can You Do?

Weak batteries are picked more often than good ones because weak batteries are charged more frequently and remain on “Ready / Green Light On” longer.

In an emergency situation, the only batteries that are on “Ready / Green Light On” could be the duds.

guidelines for battery maintenance 1 isolate date expired batteries

Ward A St. Joe’s Hspt

Expire Date Today

85% Batt ID# 1234

Date Expired

TO BE

SERVICED

Guidelines for Battery Maintenance 1. Isolate Date Expired Batteries
  • Before use the service date on the battery label is checked and if expired, the battery is isolated so it can be serviced.
guidelines for battery maintenance 2 test service battery

Printer

TO BE

SERVICED

Battery Analyzer

Guidelines for Battery Maintenance 2. Test/Service Battery
  • Batteries are serviced on a battery analyzer/tester to restore lost capacity or recalibrate the fuel gauge. Batteries that do not reach target capacity are properly discarded. All batteries with acceptable capacity (80%, or facility defined target) are relabeled.
guidelines for battery maintenance 3 relabel battery and return to service

Ward A St. Joe’s Hspt.

Expire Date 3 Months Later

84% Batt ID# 1234

NEW BATTERIES

SERVICED

BATTERIES

Guidelines for Battery Maintenance 3. Relabel Battery and Return to Service

New Label

  • After service batteries are returned to service. All batteries now meet expected performance standards (no weak batteries)
selecting the right battery analyzer tester
Selecting the Right Battery Analyzer/Tester
  • Choose a tester that matches the number and type of batteries in your facility;
    • How many batteries can be tested at the same time?
    • Are all chemistries supported?
    • Are all pack voltages (1.2V-30V+) supported?
    • Does it perform the right tests (Service tests along with priming programs for new batteries)?
    • Warranty period and upgradeability?
    • Easy to connect the battery?
    • How much time will it take?
slide16

Selecting the Right Battery Analyzer/Tester

Choose a tester that allows you to collect service data and record/report the results appropriately. PC software and accessory label printer may be required.

Choose a tester that can be updated to support batteries for future medical devices. Interchangeable adapters make it easy to accommodate new battery types.

summary battery testing what to expect
Summary – Battery Testing What to Expect
  • Test Time/Battery.

6-10 hrs. for NiCd, NiMH. 12-15 hrs. for Li-Ion. 24 hrs. for SLA.

  • Recommended Service Period/Battery Type.

NiCd – every 30-60 days. NiMH –every 60-90 days. SLA and Li-Ion every ~6 months.

  • Amount of Operational Time Required – Once installed, less than 30 minutes per day.

The bottom-line line: Battery testing will improve reliability of medical equipment and minimize the expense of unnecessary battery replacement (lower cost of operation).

thank you bruce adams@cadex com
Thank You!bruce.adams@cadex.com

For more on battery-related products and information visit the following websites:

www.cadex.com Corporate website

www.BatteryUniversity.comEducational website; offers practical information for battery users in essay form.

www.buchmann.caInformational website; carries articles and the book: "Batteries in a Portable World — A handbook on rechargeable batteries for non-engineers”