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Pulmonary Rehabilitation In COPD. Dr. Alastair Jackson September 2004. What is Pulmonary Rehabilitation?.

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pulmonary rehabilitation in copd

Pulmonary Rehabilitation In COPD

Dr. Alastair Jackson

September 2004

what is pulmonary rehabilitation
What is Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

“…a multidisciplinary programme of care for patients with chronic respiratory impairment that is individually tailored and designed to optimise each patient’s physical and social performance and autonomy.” (NICE)

Dr. Alastair Jackson

why is it important
Why is it important?
  • COPD causes 30,000 deaths per year and leads to extensive morbidity. It incurs massive costs in relation to hospital admissions, incurring nearly 6 times as many bed days of inpatient care as asthma.
  • Interventions which improve quality of life and level of functioning are important since few interventions except smoking cessation affect disease progression.

Dr. Alastair Jackson

benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation
Benefits of Pulmonary Rehabilitation
  • Break out of the “emotional straightjacket”

NICE:

  • Improved exercise capacity (A)
  • Improved health-related quality of life (A)
  • Reduced hospitalisations and length of stay (A)
  • Reduced anxiety and depression associated with COPD (A)
  • ? Increased survival (ACCP)
  • Benefits probably extend well beyond the period of rehab, especially if exercise training is maintained at home. (GOLD)

Dr. Alastair Jackson

in what settings
In what settings?
  • Effective in inpatient, outpatient and community settings and possibly at home.
  • Should be held at times that suit patients in buildings that are easy to access with appropriate access for those with disabilities.

Dr. Alastair Jackson

who is it for
Who is it for?
  • All disease severities (but may not benefit if unable to walk)
  • …where SYMPTOMS AND DISABILITY are present (usually MRC grade 3)
  • No justification for selection on basis of age, impairment, disability, smoking status or oxygen use
  • Enrolment on a smoking cessation programme a pre-requisite for inclusion?
  • Continuing smokers may be less likely to complete
  • Contra-indicated if recent MI/ unstable angina

Dr. Alastair Jackson

course content and duration
Course Content and Duration
  • The longer the better but usually 6-12 weeks (NICE). Minimum effective length 8 weeks (GOLD)
  • Diagnostic assessment
  • Baseline and outcome assessments: exercise capacity (shuttle walk), disability/health status (questionnaire)
  • Interventions : exercise training, educational, psychological, nutritional

Dr. Alastair Jackson

exercise training frequency intensity and duration
Exercise Training: Frequency, Intensity and Duration
  • Daily to weekly (x3/week)
  • 10-45 mins (? < 20 mins insufficient to elicit a training effect)
  • 50% intensity (50% peak oxygen consumption) upto maximum
  • Optimum duration not determined but usually 4-10 weeks (longer courses show greater effects)

Dr. Alastair Jackson

exercise training which muscle groups
Exercise Training: Which muscle groups?
  • Lower limb training improves exercise tolerance though no effect on measured lung function
  • DOESN’T HAVE TO BE HI TECH- corridor training common
  • Upper limb training improves arm strength and reduces ventilatory demand
  • Respiratory muscle training may influence endurance and dyspnoea but evidence is conflicting

Dr. Alastair Jackson

psychological components
Psychological components
  • COPD is associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms which may interfere with activities of daily living (ADL’s)
  • Evidence lacking for short term psychological interventions as a single therapeutic modality but longer term interventions may be beneficial
  • Expert opinion supports the use of educational and psychological interventions in pulmonary rehab programmes
  • Typical goals: address depression/anxiety, teach relaxation skills, discuss relevant issues such as sexuality, family and work relationships
  • The most positive evidence relates to adherence intervention and cognitive modification

Dr. Alastair Jackson

education
Education
  • Usually in group classes. Evidence lacking for educational interventions in isolation though benefits as part of a multidisciplinary approach widely accepted
  • Wide variety of topics: A+P, pathology, breathing retraining, nutrition, medication regimens and mechanisms, importance of exercise, managing dyspnoea, self-management, travel advice, safe oxygen use, advance directives and end of life decisions where appropriate

Dr. Alastair Jackson

nutritional counselling
Nutritional counselling
  • Both overweight and underweight can be a problem
  • 25% of patients with moderate to severe COPD show a reduction in BMI which is an independent risk factor for mortality in COPD
  • Reasons for difficulty eating should be explored: poor dentition, dyspnoea whilst eating
  • Advise frequent small meals

Dr. Alastair Jackson

costs
Costs
  • Costs of rehab per QALY gained estimated at £2,000-£8,000
  • Overall, pulmonary rehab is probably cost saving (probability 0.64) and improves quality of life

Dr. Alastair Jackson

references
References
  • NICE: National clinical guidelines on management of COPD in adults in primary and secondary care
  • GOLD: Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Pulmonary Rehabilitation Joint ACCP/AACVPR Evidence-Based Guidelines. Chest/ 112 / 5 / November 1997
  • Y Lacasse, L Brosseau, S Milne, S Martin, E Wong, GH Guyatt, RS Goldstein, White J, Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Cochrane review). In: The Cochrane Library, issue 3, 2004.
  • Download this presentation by visiting www.jacksonetienne.net then follow “resplinks” and click on “pulmonary rehab”

Dr. Alastair Jackson