policy formulation adoption and implementation n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Policy Formulation, Adoption, and Implementation PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Policy Formulation, Adoption, and Implementation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 38

Policy Formulation, Adoption, and Implementation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 6174 Views
  • Uploaded on

Policy Formulation, Adoption, and Implementation. Peters, Chapter 4-6. Stages of the Policy Process. Problem Definition (Issue formation)  Agenda Formation  Policy Adoption  Policy Implementation  Policy Evaluation  Problem Re-Definition. Stages of the Policy Process.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Policy Formulation, Adoption, and Implementation' - Gabriel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
stages of the policy process
Stages of the Policy Process
  • Problem Definition (Issue formation)

  • Agenda Formation

  • Policy Adoption

  • Policy Implementation

  • Policy Evaluation

  • Problem Re-Definition
stages of the policy process1
Stages of the Policy Process
  • Problem Definition (Issue formation)

  • Agenda Formation

  • Policy Adoption

  • Policy Implementation

  • Policy Evaluation

  • Problem Re-Definition
the politics of policy adoption
The Politics of Policy Adoption
  • Political scientists have found that policy-making is often driven by three sets of factors:
    • Personal ideology
    • Constituent demands / Public Opinion
    • Special interests
political ideology
Political Ideology
  • An ideology is an organized collection of ideas/opinions
political ideology1
Political Ideology
  • An ideology is an organized collection of ideas/opinions
  • A political ideology is a set of ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class, or large group
political ideology2
Political Ideology
  • Political ideologies are concerned with many different aspects of a society
    • the economy
    • education
    • health care
    • labor law
    • the justice system
    • the provision of social security and social welfare
    • trade
    • the environment
    • immigration
    • race
    • use of the military
    • patriotism
    • established religion
the president
The President
  • Since most legislation must ultimately be passed by Congress, the president’s power lies in his ability to persuade (Congress, the public).
the president1
The President
  • Since most legislation must ultimately be passed by Congress, the president’s power lies in his ability to persuade (Congress, the public).
  • This power is highly dependent upon public opinion regarding presidential performance (presidential approval ratings):
    • “Do you approve or disapprove of the way that the president is handling the job.
the president2
The President
  • What drives presidential approval?
    • Time (“Honeymoon”)
    • The Economy
    • International/Domestic security threats/crises (“Rally ‘round the flag”)
    • Major policy successes/failures
    • Scandals
congress
Congress
  • The Congress (especially the House) is theoretically the branch of government that is closest to the people (and hence most democratic).
congress1
Congress
  • The Congress (especially the House) is theoretically the branch of government that is closest to the people (and hence most democratic).
  • However, a number of factors intervene in this connection between Congress and the people, thus leaving much room for interest groups to exert influence.
congress2
Congress
  • Low visibility
    • % correctly identifying name and party of:
      • 1st Senator: 53%
      • 2nd Senator: 36%
      • Representative: 41%
    • Far fewer people actually pay attention to what they do!
congress3
Congress
  • Low turnout in congressional elections: 35-50%
  • Extremely high rates of re-election (and re-election margin)
    • Franking privilege
      • =$350,000 in election funds (avg)
    • Travel Allowance
    • Casework – thru congressional staffs
    • Decentralization of power (subcommittees) has led to greater use of “pork” spending
    • Money – campaign spending
the courts
The Courts
  • The judiciary is the least democratic branch, yet it can wield enormous power at times through judicial review, or the power to declare a law null and void.
the courts1
The Courts
  • The judiciary is the least democratic branch, yet it can wield enormous power at times through judicial review, or the power to declare a law null and void.
  • Although generally thought of as relatively apolitical, judges are highly partisan and their decisions are often correlated with personal ideology.
    • Party Affiliation: >90% from party of appointing Pres
    • Partisan activism: 60-70% were major party activist
interest groups
Interest Groups
  • Interest groups are private organizations that try to shape public policy
think tanks
Think Tanks
  • Objective research organizations or interest groups?
  • University of Michigan Libraries Think Tanks website
summary of policy formulation and adoption
Summary of Policy Formulation and Adoption
  • The policy process is highly complex and often unpredictable
    • Multiple actors
    • Multiple/Competing agendas
summary of policy formulation and adoption1
Summary of Policy Formulation and Adoption
  • The policy process is highly complex and often unpredictable
    • Multiple actors
    • Multiple/Competing agendas
    • Need for “legitimation” of policy choices results in a dependence on the political process
    • Stability, rather than change, is the norm
kingdon s model of policy change
Kingdon’s Model of Policy Change
  • Policy process and “policy streams”
    • Problem streams
    • Policy streams
    • Political streams
  • Policy “windows”
    • Occur when the three streams intersect
    • Often facilitated by “focusing events”
implementation
Implementation
  • Definition – Policy put into action
  • A variety of government/private organizations and actors are responsible for implementation of government policies
    • Often granted significant discretion
    • Accountability is limited
implementation1
Implementation
  • Major reasons why policies fail
implementation2
Implementation
  • Major reasons why policies fail
    • Lack of information by policymakers leads to faulty policy design
implementation3
Implementation
  • Major reasons why policies fail
    • Lack of information by policymakers leads to faulty policy design
    • Lack of support for policy by actors in the implementation process (“veto points”)
      • Federal vs. state/local (values, finances)
      • Bureaucratic politics - Political appointees vs. career staff; competing/overlapping jurisdiction
      • Interest group politics (“capture”)
implementation4
Implementation
  • Major reasons why policies fail
    • Lack of information by policymakers leads to faulty policy design
    • Lack of support for policy by actors in the implementation process (“veto points”)
      • Federal vs. state/local (values, finances)
      • Bureaucratic politics - Political appointees vs. career staff; competing/overlapping jurisdiction
      • Interest group politics (“capture”)
    • Policy adoption is motivated by factors unrelated to designing an effective policy solution
policy legitimation
Policy Legitimation
  • Legitimacy: a belief on the part of citizens that the current government represents a proper form of government and a willingness on the part of those citizens to accept the decrees of the government as legal and authoritative.

(Back)