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Persuasion. Dale Walker University of Wyoming College of Arts & Sciences ALADN 2005 – New Orleans. Persuasion. Social Psychology Ethos Myth. Persuasion. Q: What about logic and reason?

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persuasion

Persuasion

Dale Walker

University of Wyoming

College of Arts & Sciences

ALADN 2005 – New Orleans

persuasion2
Persuasion
  • Social Psychology
  • Ethos
  • Myth
persuasion3
Persuasion

Q: What about logic and reason?

A: That’s what you studied in college, and you know that’s only a small part. So let’s look at other things.

persuasion4
Persuasion
  • Social Psychology
  • Ethos
  • Myth
i social psychology
I. Social Psychology
  • Reciprocity
  • Consistency
  • Social proof
  • Authority
  • Likeability
  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

robert b cialdini influence the psychology of persuasion revised new york quill 1993

Robert B. Cialdini,Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion(revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

1 reciprocity
1. Reciprocity

One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance:

We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

Cialdini

1 reciprocity8
1. Reciprocity

One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance:

We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

Cialdini

1 reciprocity9
1. Reciprocity

I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what

another person has provided us

E.g:

  • give a flower then ask for a donation
  • LBJ called in favors; Carter had none to call in; political patronage
  • send prospect pre-printed return address labels with solicitation letter
  • small gifts and comped meals

Cialdini

1 reciprocity10
1. Reciprocity
  • I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession
  • Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution

Cialdini

1 reciprocity11
1. Reciprocity
  • I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession
  • Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution
  • Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to

Cialdini

1 reciprocity12
1. Reciprocity
  • I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession
  • Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution
  • Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to
  • Technique 3: Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; or present the undesirable option first

Cialdini

1 reciprocity13
1. Reciprocity
  • I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession
  • Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution
  • Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to
  • Technique 3: Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; present undesirable option first

Cialdini

2 consistency
2. Consistency
  • Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
  • Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look virtuous

Cialdini

2 consistency15
2. Consistency
  • Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
  • Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look virtuous

Cialdini

2 consistency16
2. Consistency
  • Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency
  • Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments
  • Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments manipulate a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment)

Cialdini

2 consistency17
2. Consistency
  • Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency
  • Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments
  • Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments manipulate a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment)

Cialdini

2 consistency18
2. Consistency
  • Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency
  • Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments
  • Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments begin to shape a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment)

Cialdini

2 consistency19
2. Consistency
  • Outcome 1: Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound
  • Outcome 2: Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs

Cialdini

2 consistency20
2. Consistency
  • Outcome 1: Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound
  • Outcome 2: Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs

Cialdini

2 consistency21
2. Consistency

Examples:

  • negotiating a car price
  • “Hi, how are you?”
  • Howard Dean’s campaign (meet ups and volunteers writing letters)
  • have customers not salespeople fill out sale agreements
  • testimonials
  • campaign leadership

Cialdini

3 social proof
3. Social Proof
  • One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct.
  • The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct.
  • Pluralistic ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong
  • Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us

Cialdini

3 social proof23
3. Social Proof
  • One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct.
  • The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct.
  • Pluralistic ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong
  • Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us

Cialdini

3 social proof24
3. Social Proof

Examples:

  • laugh tracks
  • faith communities
  • mob behavior
  • inaction toward crime or emergency
  • Jonestown
  • applause
  • testimonials

Cialdini

4 authority
4. Authority
  • We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority
  • Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure

Cialdini

4 authority26
4. Authority
  • We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority
  • Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure

Cialdini

4 authority27
4. Authority
  • Titles
  • Uniforms
  • Clothes
  • Trappings of status

Cialdini

5 likeability
5. Likeability

We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like

Cialdini

5 likeability29
5. Likeability

We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like

Cialdini

5 likeability30
5. Likeability

Compliance factors:

  • similarity of opinion, life-style, background, personality traits
  • familiarity and contact
  • cooperation in shared goals

Cialdini

5 likeability31
5. Likeability

Compliance factors:

  • physical attractiveness
  • compliments
  • association with positive things (beauty, what’s hip, food)
  • success
  • smile

Cialdini

5 likeability32
5. Likeability

Examples:

  • Tupperware parties
  • peer solicitation
  • good cop / bad cop
  • eating together
  • celebrity endorsements

Cialdini

6 scarcity
6. Scarcity
  • Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited
  • We want it even more when we are in competition for it
  • E.g.: final $4.4 million in matching funds disappeared in one week

Cialdini

6 scarcity34
6. Scarcity
  • Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited
  • We want it even more when we are in competition for it
  • E.g.: final $4.4 million in matching funds disappeared in one week

Cialdini

i social psychology35
I. Social Psychology
  • Reciprocity
  • Consistency
  • Social proof
  • Authority
  • Likeability
  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

i social psychology36
I. Social Psychology
  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • Consistency
  • Social proof
  • Authority
  • Likeability
  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

i social psychology37
I. Social Psychology
  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
  • Social proof
  • Authority
  • Likeability
  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

i social psychology38
I. Social Psychology
  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
  • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct
  • Authority
  • Likeability
  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

i social psychology39
I. Social Psychology
  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
  • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct
  • Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority
  • Likeability
  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

i social psychology40
I. Social Psychology
  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
  • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct
  • Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority
  • Likeability: we say yes to someone we like
  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

i social psychology41
I. Social Psychology
  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
  • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct
  • Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority
  • Likeability: we say yes to someone we like
  • Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

i social psychology42
I. Social Psychology
  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
  • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct
  • Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority
  • Likeability: we say yes to someone we like
  • Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

persuasion43
Persuasion
  • Social Psychology
  • Ethos
  • Myth
ethos
Ethos
  • The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.
  • Goal = credibility
  • Personae: expert, friend, genuine
ethos45
Ethos
  • Definition: the type of person that a writer or speaker projects
  • Aristotle: demonstrate trustworthiness within one’s speech
ethos46
Ethos
  • Definition: the type of person that a writer or speaker projects
  • Aristotle: demonstrate trustworthiness within one’s speech
ethos47
Ethos
  • Definition: The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.
  • Lysias: provide words appropriate to the speaker
  • E.g., the simple rustic
ethos48
Ethos
  • Definition: The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.
  • Lysias: provide words appropriate to the speaker
  • E.g., the simple rustic
ethos53
Ethos
  • the absentminded professor
  • the overbearing school principal
  • the precocious child
  • the immature father
  • the rich snob
  • the bimbo

Comedy thrives onpersonalitytypes.

ethos54
Ethos
  • simplicity or sophistication
  • elitism or egalitarianism
  • emphasis on faculty or students, research or teaching
  • careers and professionalism or the liberal arts
  • athletics or academics
  • regional or national or global

Variable elements of institutional ethos:

ethos56
Ethos
  • diversity, tolerance, and openness
  • inquiry and discovery
  • heritage and history
  • location, region and campus
  • community
  • sports

Common elements of institutional ethos:

ethos57
Ethos
  • The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.
  • What is the ethos of your school? It’s defining characteristics and values?
  • What is the ethos you bring to your writing and speaking?
  • What is the ethos you wish to project?
persuasion58
Persuasion
  • Social Psychology
  • Ethos
  • Myth
slide59
Myth
  • Popular meaning = lies
  • Greek muqo (mythos) = story
  • Greek muqo (mythos) opposes λογος (logos), i.e., reason
  • Goal: frame or define a situation to create common ground
  • Benefit: enliven rhetoric
slide60
Myth
  • some myths / stories explain why and how we do the things we do (the first Thanksgiving);
  • some reinforce the values we share in common (Horatio Alger);
  • some frame the way we view the world (manifest destiny)
what is your story
What is your story?
  • Help your donors see themselves in a story, especially a meaningful story
  • Touch big ideas
  • Make the story sensory
  • Fill it with shared values (ethos)
  • Provide meaning to your donors’ lives and their philanthropy
  • Create their self-image as donors
persuasion62
Persuasion
  • Social Psychology
  • Ethos
  • Myth
persuasion63

Persuasion

ddwalker@uwyo.edu