nuclear power past present future by salomon levy l.
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NUCLEAR POWER PAST PRESENT FUTURE By SALOMON LEVY SL-1 10/19/05 EARLY HISTORY 12/2/42 FIRST SUSTAINED AND CONTROLLED FISSION 7/16/45 FIRST DETONATION OF PLUTONIUM NUCLEAR WEAPON 1946 FORMATION OF AEC WITH A NAVAL AND A CIVILIAN REACTOR BRANCH

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early history
EARLY HISTORY

12/2/42 FIRST SUSTAINED AND CONTROLLED FISSION

7/16/45 FIRST DETONATION OF PLUTONIUM NUCLEAR WEAPON

1946 FORMATION OF AEC WITH A NAVAL AND A CIVILIAN REACTOR BRANCH

12/8/53 ATOMS FOR PEACE INITIATIVE BY EISENHOWER

1954 PRESSURIZED WATER NAUTILUS SUBMARINE GOES TO SEA

8/30/54 ATOMIC ENERGY ACT ALLOWS PRIVATE OWNERSHOP OF NUCLEAR REACTORS

1960 COMMERCIAL YANKEE ROWE (PWR) AND DRESDEN I (BWR) PRODUCE 170 MWe

REMARKABLE PROGRESS

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NAVAL REACTOR TECHNOLOGY

  • JOINED KAPL IN 1953 TO WORK ON SEA WOLF SUBMARINE WHICH USED AN INTERMEDIATE (SPECTRUM) REACTOR COOLED BY SODIUM.
  • WORKED ON MODELING FREEZING ROTATING PLUGS AND STEAM GENERATORS.
  • MOST REMARKABLE FEATURE OF NAVAL STUDIES WAS INSISTENCE OF FULL SCALE TESTS TO AVOID SURPRISES.
  • FULL SCALE PROTOTYPES OF NAUTILUS AND SEAWOLF BUILT. USED FOR TRAINING PERSONNEL.
  • 20 DIFFERENT FULL SIZE HEAT SODIUM/WATER/STEAM EXCHANGERS TESTED.
  • NAVAL PROGRAM QUITE SUCCESSFUL DUE TO FULL FUNDING AND SUPPORT OF ALL PARTIES INVOLVED.

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power demonstration program
POWER DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM
  • MANY REACTOR CONCEPTS ACCEPTED BY AEC, USING ORGANIC, GAS, LIQUID METAL, HOMOGENEOUS AND MOLTEN SALT COOLANTS.
  • TWO WINNERS EMERGED: PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR (PWR) AND BOILING WATER REACTOR (BWR) BECAUSE THEY COULD TAKE ADVANTAGE OF LARGE NAVAL PROGRAM, SPONSORED BY AEC NAVAL REACTOR BRANCH.
  • EXPERIMENTAL BOILING WATER REACTOR (EBWR) PRODUCED 5 MWe AT ANL ON 12/56. SHIPPINGPORT PWR PRODUCE 60 MWe IN 12/67

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improvements in pwr and bwr
IMPROVEMENTS IN PWR AND BWR
  • INCREASED SPECIFIC POWER AND COMPACTNESS PURSUED OVER YEARS TO REDUCE CAPITAL COSTS.
  • INCREASED FUEL EXPOSURE TO REDUCE FUEL COSTS.
  • MOST BENEFIT FROM INCREASED OUTPUT.

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light water reactor lwr safety approach
LIGHT WATER REACTOR (LWR) SAFETY APPROACH
  • TO PROTECT BARRIERS WHICH COULD RELEASE FISSION PRODUCTS.
  • TO PROVIDE GOOD MARGINS DURING NORMAL OPERATION.
  • TO AVOID FAILURE DURING TRANSIENTS.
  • TO HAVE SAFETY SYSTEMS TO LIMIT DAMAGE DURING ACCIDENTS.

EXAMPLE: AVOID FUEL CLAD OVERHEATING DUE TO STEAM BLANKETING REFERRED TO AS “BURNOUT” OR CRITICAL HEAT FLUX.

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critical heat flux studies
CRITICAL HEAT FLUX STUDIES
  • LIMIT LINE BELOW ALL AVAILABLE DATA AND A FACTOR OF 2 MARGIN BELOW LIMIT LINE PROVIDED.
  • TESTS INITIATED IN ANNULAR GEOMETRY SIMILUTING HOTTEST CORNER ROD TO PRODUCE NEW LIMIT LINE.
  • MULTIROD TESTS CARRIED OUT FOR 4 AND 9 RODS.
  • DUE TO LACK OF SUCCESS OF ANALYSIS TO REPRODUCE DATA WITH A SMALL UNCERTAINTY, CONSTRUCTION OF FULL SCALE FACILITY.
  • OVER 4000 DATA POINTS OBTAINED TO COVER VARIATIONS IN FLOW, PRESSURE, AND POWER DISTRIBUTIONS.

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loss of cooling accidents
LOSS OF COOLING ACCIDENTS
  • FISSION PRODUCTS GENERATE DECAY HEAT AND REACTOR REQUIRES COOLING AFTER NUCLEAR FISSION STOPPED.
  • LOSS OF COOLANT ACCIDENT (LCA) PRODUCED BY BREAK IN PRIMARY SYSTEM.
    • LIMITED TO DOUBLE-ENDED OF LARGEST PIPE ATTACHED TO VESSEL.
    • TREATED MORE MECHANISTICALLY WITH TIME.
    • IF COUPLED WITH NO COOLING INJECTION, IT CAN LEAD TO FUEL FAILURES AND MELTING WHICH WILL PENETRATE VESSEL AND INCREASE RISK TO CONTAINMENT INTEGRITY.

LCA SOURCE OF SIGNIFICANT DEBATES AND INTERVENTIONS.

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loss of coolant history
LOSS OF COOLANT HISTORY

10/27/66 ADVISORY TASK FORCE ON POWER REACTOR EMERGENCY COOLING FORMED.

1971 INTERIM ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA DEMAND INCREASED EMERGENCY COOLING SYSTEMS (ECCS) PERFORMANCE.

1972 PUBLIC HEARING

1972 SEMI-SCALE TESTS INDICATED INJECTED WATER MAY NOT REACH REACTOR. TESTS IMPROPERLY SCALED.

1975 AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY (APS) CLAIM “PROBABILITY OF ECCS FUNCTIONING WAS UNPREDICTABLE”.

1976 REGULATORS (NRC) AND INDUSTRY CARRIED OUT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM OF $1.5 BILLION TO CONFIRM ECCS CAPABILITY.

1979 TMI-2 ACCIDENT DUE TO RELIEF VALVE FAILING TO CLOSE AND PRODUCING LOSS OF COOLANT ACCIDENT.

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tmi 2 accident
TMI-2 ACCIDENT
  • LOSS OF FEEDWATER TO STEAM GENERATOR; PRIMARY WATER HEATS UP, PRESSURIZER LEVEL RISES, ELECTROMATIC RELIEF VALVE OPENS AND FAILS TO RECLOSE; PRESSURE DECREASES, WATER IS ADDED BUT BELOW INVENTORY LOST THROUGH RELIEF VALVE PRESSURIZER LEVEL REMAINS HIGH AND WATER INJECTION STOPPED; STEAM FORMED IN REACTOR CAUSES VIBRATION OF PUMPS WHICH ARE TRIPPED; WATER LEVEL IN CORE DROPS TO UNCOVER FUEL AND TO CAUSE FUEL FAILURE AND CLAD-WATER REACTION TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN RELEASE AND FUEL MELT.
  • NO INDICATION OF RELIEF VALVE FAILURE.
  • OPERATORS TRAINED ON SIMULATOR USING ONLY SOLID WATER.
  • THERMOCOUPLE READINGS IN SOME FUEL ASSEMBLIES NOT INCLUDED IN CONTROL ROOM.
  • HIGH PRESSURE INJECTION SYSTEM CANNOT COPE WITH INVENTORY LOST THRU RELIEF VALVE.
  • LOSS OF COMMAND AND CONTROL IN CONTROL ROOM.

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consequences of tmi 2 accident
CONSEQUENCES OF TMI-2 ACCIDENT
  • INCREASED EMPHASIS ON OPERATIONS AND TRAINING (INPO).
  • REDESIGN OF CONTROL ROOMS.
  • EMPHASIS ON SMALL BREAKS AND OPERATOR ACTIONS INSTEAD OF UNREALISTIC LOW PROBABILITY LARGE BREAKS.
  • CONSIDERABLE LICENSING DELAYS AND CHANGES.
  • INCREASED STUDY OF SEVERE ACCIDENTS.
  • SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY.

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focus upon operations
FOCUS UPON OPERATIONS
  • SEVERAL OVERSIGHT GROUPS: SALEM, PEACH BOTTOM, PALO VERDE, CANADIAN PLANTS. SERVED ON IE BOARD OF DIRECTORS.
  • MEMBER OF INPO ADVISORY COUNCIL.
  • CONTINUED ROLE IN SCALING METHODOLOGY OF SEVERE ACCIDENTS, IN DIRECT CONTAINMENT HEATING TESTS, MELT-CONCRETE EXPERIMENTS AT ANL.
  • MEMBER OF IAEA INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR SAFETY ADVISORY GROUP (INSAG) WHERE CONCEPT OF SAFETY CULTURE WAS REINFORCED IN REVISION OF BASIC SAFETY PRINCIPLES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS.

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u s nuclear program
U.S. NUCLEAR PROGRAM

PRESENTATION SUBDIVIDED INTO 3 PARTS:

  • CURRENT SITUATION
  • TRANSITION PERIOD UP TO 2015 WITH NEW WATER COOLED PLANTS ON-LINE
  • LONG TERM PICTURE UP TO 2030

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current situation
CURRENT SITUATION

103 OPERATING WATER COOLED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

  • 788 BILLION kWhr IN 2004, 20% OF U.S. ELECTRICITY
  • ON-LINE STAY ABOVE 90 PERCENT
  • LOWEST PRODUCTION COSTS OF 1.7¢ PER kWhr
  • LIFE EXTENSION FROM 40 TO 60 YEARS
  • NO GREENHOUSE GASES OR AIR POLLUTION

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current situation cont
CURRENT SITUATION (CONT.)

ONCE THROUGH FUEL CYCLE

  • GROWING SPENT FUEL STORAGE AT SITES
  • YUCCA REPOSITORY AUTHORIZED AND UNDER NRC REVIEW
  • ANTICIPATE DELAYS AND COST INCREASES
  • INSUFFICIENT AUTHORIZED SPACE AT YUCCA

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summary
SUMMARY
  • CURRENT NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PERFORMANCE IS SAFE AND COMPETITIVE AND CONSIDERABLY SUPERIOR IN TERMS OF AIR POLLUTION AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION

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transition period
TRANSITION PERIOD

WATER OPTIONS BEING PURSUED FOR NEW PLANTS

  • TVA GROUP ASSESSING GE ABWR AT BELLAFONTE SITE
  • DOMINION ENERGY CONSIDERING GE ESBWR AT NORTH ANNA WITH DRAFT ESP ISSUED ON 1/05 AND FINAL ESP BY 6/06
  • NUSTART ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PURSUING W AP-1000 (CERTIFIED) AND GE ESBWR (CERT IN PROGRESS) FOR ESP AT CLINTON AND GRAND GULF SITES
  • CONSTELLATION AND SOUTHERN ENERGY INTERESTED IN ESP
  • DUKE POWER PREPARING COL SUBMITTAL FOR NEW PLANT/SITE TO START BY 2015. CONSIDERING W, GE, AND ARREVA DESIGNS
  • ARREVA TO APPLY FOR EPR CERT IN 2008. EPR IS 1600 MWe PWR SOLD TO FINLAND AND PRELIMINARILY APPROVED FOR CONSTRUCTION AT FLAMANVILLE, FRANCE

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transition period cont
TRANSITION PERIOD (CONT.)

PREDICTION OF 3-6 NEW PLANTS OPERATING BY 2015, DEPENDING UPON

  • SATISFACTORY DEMONSTRATION OF NRC COL PROCESS
  • ACHIEVEMENT OF ADVERTISED IMPROVEMENTS
  • LICENSING OF YUCCA AND CONSTRUCTION PROGRESSING
  • BENEFIT FOR NO GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSION

FUEL CYCLE MOSTLY ONCE-THROUGH

  • DOE AFCI INITIALLY SEEKING
  • “PROLIFERATION RESISTANT SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY” TO ELIMINATE NEED FOR ANOTHER REPOSITORY BY 2015
  • $3.1 BILLION PRIVATE FUEL STORAGE (PFS) ON UTAH TRIBAL LANDS UP FOR SUPREME COURT REVIEW
  • MEGATONS TO MEGAWATTS PROGRAM RECYCLING WEAPONS PU IN DUKE PLANTS WITH FUEL FABRICATED IN NEW FACILITY

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summary24
SUMMARY
  • CURRENT NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PERFORMANCE IS SAFE AND COMPETITIVE AND CONSIDERABLY SUPERIOR IN TERMS OF AIR POLLUTION AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION
  • REVIVAL OF NUCLEAR POWER IN PROGRESS WITH 3 TO 6 NEW PLANTS OPERATING BY 2015. APPROVAL OF PFS AND MOX FUEL USE AT CATAWBA ARE IMPORTANT FIRST STEPS TO SUCCESS OF ONCE THROUGH FUEL CYCLE AND TO PROCEED BEYOND IT

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long term up to 2030
LONG TERM UP TO 2030

GAS COOLED REACTOR OPTIONS

  • SOUTH AFRICA TO APPLY FOR PBMR CERT IN 2007, FIRST UNIT ON LINE IN SOUTH AFRICA IN 2012
  • INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM TO BURN RUSSIAN PU BY 2009 IN GT-MHR BEING BUILT IN RUSSIA
  • VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTOR TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN AT EARLY STAGE OF CONSIDERATION
  • MUST CLOSE GAS COOLED FUEL CYCLE

OVERCOME USE OF ONLY ONE PERCENT OF ENERGY IN NUCLEAR FUEL

  • DOMINICI PROGRAM OF DEVELOPING PROLIFERATION RESISTANT SEPARATION AND RECYCLING THROUGH AFCI AND TRANSMUTATION OF PU AND LONG LIFE FISSION PRODUCT IN FAST REACTORS THROUGH GENIV PLANT IS SOLUTION
  • SEVERAL U.S. PAST STARTS BUT NO FINISHES. LAST DEBACLE WAS SHUTDOWN OF IFR IN 1995 AND ABANDOMENT OF FFTF.
  • RUSSIA, JAPAN, INDIA AND NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY NOW AHEAD IN FAST RACTORS AND AFCI

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long term up to 2030 cont
LONG TERM UP TO 2030 (CONT.)

CONCERNS ABOUT CHANCES OF SUCCESS OF U.S. LONG TERM PLANS

  • NO ASSURANCE OF PROGRAM SURVIVING THROUGH SEVERAL ELECTIONS
  • IN MARKET DRIVEN ECONOMY ONCE THRU FUEL CYCLE AND THERMAL REACTORS FAVORED DUE TO REDUCED POWER COSTS
  • NEW INFRA STRUCTURE NEEDED TO ENCOURAGE CLOSING FUEL CYCLE AND USING SPENT FUEL
  • AFCI AND GEN IV PROGRAMS DIFFUSE AND TAKING TOO LONG
  • RELY MORE ON PAST EXPERIENCE AND SHORTEN SCHEDULE

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summary27
SUMMARY
  • CURRENT NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PERFORMANCE IS SAFE AND COMPETITIVE AND CONSIDERABLY SUPERIOR IN TERMS OF AIR POLLUTION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION
  • REVIVAL OF NUCLEAR POWER IN PROGRESS WITH 3 TO 6 NEW PLANTS OPERATING BY 2015. APPROVAL OF PFS AND MOX FUEL USE AT CATAWBA ARE IMPORTANT FIRST STEPS TO IMPROVE ONCE THROUGH FUEL CYCLE
  • U.S BEGINNING TO PURSUE FULL UTILIZATION OF NUCLEAR FUEL. MORE SELECTIVE AND ACCELERATED PROGRAM NEEDED TO OVERCOME ANTICIPATED POLITICS. ONLY WITH SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED UTILIZATION OF NUCLEAR FUEL WILL THE U.S. ACHIEVE LONG TERM SUPPLY OF ELECTRICITY WITH MINIMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT.

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