Missing in Interaction • Classroom interactions support male dominance • Unequal enforcement of classroom rules • Male dominance commands teacher attention • Focusing on difficult-to-manage boys • Restlessness and raising hands
Teacher Responses to Student Work • Four Types of Responses • Praises: “Good Job” • Remediates: “Check your addition” • Criticizes: “No, you’ve missed number 4” • Accepts: “Okay.” • Gender gap in valuable feedback • Boys are more likely to receive all 4 types of feedback • Girls are more likely to receive the last form of feedback • Intelligence vs. Neatness and Presentation • The Bombing Rate
Gender Inequalities on the Playground • Gender segregation on the playground • Children tend to self segregate by gender during play • This self-segregation is largely controlled by the boys • Boys control ten times the playground area in comparison to girls • Actors vs. Spectators • “Girls are not good enough to play with boys” • Pollution Rituals (Cooties)
Jay MacLeod and Social Reproduction Conflict Constructivist draws from Bourdieu • Focuses on social inequalities as products of complex interactions • Purpose of education: social reproduction • Students from backgrounds rich in the three forms of capital have the preferred cultural capital that enables them to function in school • Students that possess the appropriate cultural capital will be recognized as “advanced” leaving those that do not possess the same cultural capital left to reproduce their habitus • Masked through the ideology of meritocracy: individuals who do not have the desired cultural capital are labeled as lacking in intelligence and the drive to succeed • Lack of agency: conflict constructivists leave very little room for social mobility, leading to a somewhat bleak and determinist view of schooling and the reproduction of inequalities
Ain’t No Makin’ It • Offers tangible evidence of social reproduction within school • Jay MacLeod researches the intersection of structure, agency, and culture within social reproduction in a lower class neighborhood termed “Claredon Heights” • Claredon Heights: classified as what we know as “the projects”- government funded, lower class, urban residential areas.
Teenagers in Claredon Heights • The Hallway Hangers: a group of predominantly white high school boys that reject notions of meritocracy and engage in self destructive acts such as drinking, consuming drugs, dealing drugs, and ditching school. • The Brothers: a group of black high school boys who embrace notions of meritocracy, envision bright futures for themselves, and generally stay away from activities characteristic of the hallway hangers.
Ambitions and Desires • Family members, friends, and school officials such as teachers all influence these students’ ambitions and desires. • Hallway Hangers: Like their families, they reject meritocracy and the notion that education provides a vehicle toward success • The Brothers: Like their families, embrace the ideology of meritocracy and base their self–worth on its accomplishment whereby education is a crucial component.
Conclusions • Though it appears that the brothers’ ambitions will lead them to a path out of Claredon Heights, McLeod reveals that both the hallway hangers and the brothers remain in the lower class from which they came thus reproducing inequalities
Annette LareauFamily-School Relationships • Argument: Class related cultural factors shape parents’ compliance with teachers’ requests for parental participation in schooling • What do schools ask of parents in the educational experience of young children? (Variations in teacher expectations?) • How do parents respond to schools’ requests?
Colton School Located in a working class community Parents employed in semiskilled and unskilled occupations Most parents are high school graduates but many are dropouts Students: 1/2 white, 1/3 Latino, rest are African American or Asian 1/2 students qualify for free lunch (measure of SES) Prescott School Located in a upper-middle class suburban community Parents employed as professionals, executives, and managers Most parents are college educated with fathers holding advanced degrees Students: Predominantly white No free lunch program (measure of SES) Studied first grade classrooms in 2 different schools
Parental Involvement • Defined: A partnership between parents and schools that include • attending school events • reading to their children • communicating concerns about their children to the schools • reviewing and reinforcing material learned in class • volunteering in the classroom • partnerships with deference to teachers and principals as the experts
Conclusions • Parents who agreed with the teachers’ and administrators’ definition of partnership offered an educational advantage to their children • Parents who turned over responsibility of education to the professional could negatively affect their child’s schooling • Responses to involvement were much higher at Prescott in comparison to Colton indicating class differences in parental involvement.
Colton Parent-teacher conferences: 60% Open House: 35% Volunteering in Classroom: 3% Rarely initiated contact with teachers Raised nonacademic issues Awkward interactions Little reinforcement of schoolwork Prescott Parent-teacher conferences: 100% Open House: 96% Volunteering in Classroom 43% Frequently initiated contact with teachers Raised academic issues and concerns Comfortable interactions Consistent reinforcement of schoolwork Differences in Parental Involvement
Factors Structuring Parental Participation • Educational Capabilities • Colton Parents: struggled in school, doubts about their capabilities to help their children, viewed teachers as professionals responsible for the education of their children • Prescott Parents: college graduates and advanced degrees, confident about their abilities to help their children, viewed teachers as partners in educating their children • Income and Work Schedules • Colton Parents: Less disposable income and inflexible work schedules • Prescott Parents: More disposable income and flexible work schedules • Information About Schooling • Colton Parents socialize more with extended family networks • Prescott Parents socialize more with other parents from the school