michael and cecilia ibru university n.
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  2. Course Outline Lesson 1: Logical Presentation of Papers Lesson 2:Phonetics Lesson 3: Introduction to English Lexis and Structure Lesson 4: Figures of Speech Lesson 5: Report Writing Lesson 6: Summary Writing and Lesson 7: The Art of Public Speaking and Oral Communication

  3. Lesson 1: Logical Presentation Of Papers Documentation • The art of acknowledging our source(s) of information is called documentation. Every book you consult should be properly documented. • Failure to acknowledge your source of information is termed PLAGIARISM Some Methods of Documentation End/Foot notes: It requires the use of Arabic numerals (1,2,3, and so on) which are typed slightly above the note (quote) called superscript. Foot-notes appear at the bottom of the page containing the note while the end-note appears at the end of the chapter or the entire work.

  4. Lesson 1 cont’d: Some Methods of Documentation • American Psychological Association (APA): Also called the 3-point reference style because it utilizes the author’s name, year of publication and page number (in-text citation). E.g. According to Soyinka “a tree does not make a forest” (1990:12). • Et al is used for a book with more than two authors. E.g Frank, Brown, James Paul et al (1970). History of Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  5. Lesson 1 cont’d: Mechanical rules in research writing • When a quotation is too long, use ellipsis (…) to represent the omitted part. The fourth dot in an ellipsis is usually a full-stop. • If a quote is more than four lines, indent it. E.g Chi asserts that: the precise question is how much do we acquire in order to function properly in our different area of specialization so as to function effectively in our different fields. The answer is not far- fetched as it directly affects our lives and what we give back to society (1989:15). • Pages of our research work should be typed at the upper right-hand corner and the font size is twelve with font style Times New Roman. Line spacing is double-line spacing.

  6. Lesson 1 cont’d: Mechanical Rules in Research Writing cont’d. • Every project is divided into three parts: Front matter, the text itself and the back matter. • The Front matter contains the preliminary pages like dedication, tables of content and acknowledgement. • The Text comprises of chapters one to five of your research project. • The Back matter contains your bibliography/references/works cited and your appendix if you used any. • The Appendix gives additional information about your research project. It contains diagrams, pictures and even questionnaires.

  7. LESSON 2: PHONETICS • Phonetics is that branch of linguistics which studies how human speech sounds are produced and their characteristics. The earliest phoneticians were Indian grammarians. • Organs of speech production include the lips, tongue, teeth, roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate), velum, uvula, alveolar ridge, vocal cords, nasal cavity, glottis, windpipe. • It is divided into three branches: articulatory phonetics, auditory phonetics and acoustic phonetics • Articulatory phonetics has to do with how speech sounds are produced. • Acoustic phonetics has to with how these speech sounds are transmitted from the hearer to the listener through the sound waves. • Auditory phonetics has to do with how these speech sounds are perceived and interpreted or decode by the listener/hearer. The hearer has to listen and understand in other to have a good perception of what has been said. • The International Phonetic Association (IPA) was formed in 1885 and the phonetic symbols/alphabets is credited to this association.

  8. Lesson 2 cont’d: Process of Speech Production • Speech production begins from the lungs which is the power house from which the air we use in speaking emanates. • The air flows from the lungs through the wind-pipe till it gets to the larynx/vocal cords/Adam’s apple where it is then modified. The vocal cords contains two thin tissues which helps in the modification of speech sounds. • The modification of sounds in the vocal cords results in what is called voicing. If the two tissues are wide apart, the air flows out freely resulting in voiceless sounds but if they are drawn together, it results in voiced sounds. • Sounds are voiced when the vocal cords vibrate and are voiceless if there is no vibration of the cords. Voiced sounds include /b/, /g/ and /v/ while voiceless sounds include /p/, /t/ and /s/ • These modified sounds are finally released either through the mouth (oral sounds) or the nostril (nasal sounds).

  9. Lesson 2 cont’d: The Sounds of English • There are forty-four sounds in English of which twenty are vowels and twenty-four are consonants. • Vowels are sounds which are produced with the vibration of the vocal cords. It is divided into two- pure vowels (monopthongs) and impure vowels (dipthongs). • The pure vowels are twelve in number with seven short vowels and five long vowels. They are just a single sound and that is why it is called ‘mono’ meaning ‘one’. A long vowel has a colon (:) after it unlike the short ones. • The dipthongs are also called double sounds and they have a Greek origin. They glide from one vowel quality to the next (a movement from one vowel to the next vowel in their articulation). There are eight dipthongs in English.

  10. Lesson 2 cont’d: The Pure and Impure Vowels Pure vowels • Vowel no 1 /i:/ e.g. bee, bead • Vowel no 2: /i/ e.g. sin, bit, did • Vowel no 3: /e/ e.g. many, men • Vowel no 4: /æ/ e.g. cat, mat • Vowel no 5: /a:/ e.g. laugh, heart • Vowel no 6: /ɔ/ e.g. want, cough • Vowel no 7: /ɔ:/ e.g. board, door • Vowel no 8: /u/ e.g. could, full • Vowel no 9: /u:/ e.g. fool, shoe • Vowel no 10: /ᴧ/ e.g. love, come, sun • Vowel no 11: /З/ e.g. dirt, shirt, firm • Vowel no 12: /ə/ e.g. waiter, master. It is called the schwa sound and occurs in almost all unstressed syllables. Impure vowels • Vowel no 13 /ei/ e.g. fate, face, break, pay • Vowel no 14 /ai/ e.g. fight, time, height • Vowel no 15 /ɔi/ e.g. boy, oil, foil, loin • Vowel no 16 /əu/ e.g. go, toe, goat, slow • Vowel no 17 /au/ e.g. cow, out, plough • Vowel no 18 /iə/ e.g. hear, ear, near fear • Vowel no 19 /eə/ e.g. hair, care, chair, air • Vowel no 20 /uə/ e.g. sure, tour, poor, cure

  11. Lesson 2 cont’d: CONSONANTS • Consonants are sounds produced with an obstruction of the airstream in the “buccal cavity (mouth)” (Onuigbo 36). Three factors are used in the classification of consonants. They are: place of articulation, manner of articulation and state of the glottis. • Place of articulation refers to the point in the vocal tract where the flow of air is hindered in its production. E.g. /p/ and /b/ are called bilabials because the flow of air is hindered at the lips- the upper and lower lips. • Manner of articulation refers to the level of degree of the obstruction to the airstream. This obstruction maybe total or partial. Some consonants are called plosives because the air builds up behind the articulators and released with an explosive noise. Examples of plosives are /b/, /k/, /g/, /p/. • State of the glottis is an important factor in the classification of consonants as it groups consonants into voiced and voiceless sounds.

  12. Lesson 2 cont’d: Differences between a Vowel and a Consonant Vowel Consonant There is an obstruction to the flow of air in the articulation of all consonants Not all consonants are oral sounds. Some are oral while others are nasals sounds produced via the nostrils). There are three nasals in English- /m/, /n/ and /ŋ/. The vocal cord do not vibrate for all consonants. Some are voiced others are voiceless. • There is a free flow of air from the lungs in the pronunciation of all vowels • All vowels are oral sounds (sounds articulated via the mouth). • The vocal cords vibrate for all vowels. They are voiced sounds.

  13. Lesson 2 cont’d: Syllable: Parts and Structure • A syllable is a unit of sound. Some words can be monosyllabic containing one syllable, e.g. word, cook, school etc., others can be disyllabic containing two syllables like master, pauper, finger, etc., while others can be polysyllabic containing more than two syllables like universe, property, university, management, etc. • There are three parts of every syllable. They are the onset, the peak(nucleus) and the coda. The onset of every syllable is the initial consonant while the peak is a vowel and the coda is the last consonant in a syllable. The onset and coda are optional parts but the peak is a compulsory part of a syllable. An example is the monosyllabic word ‘room’ /ru:m/, /r/ is the onset, /u:/ is the peak and /m/ is the coda. Another example is the polysyllabic word ‘university’ /ju:nivЗ:siti/ which has five syllables. ‘ju:’ is the first and has just an onset and a peak, ‘ni’ is the second with just an onset and a peak, ‘vЗ:’ is the third with an onset and a peak, ‘si’ has an onset and a peak and ‘ti’ also has an onset and a peak.

  14. Lesson 2 cont’d: Structure of a Syllable • Every syllable has a structure. The structure of the English syllable is (C(0-3))V(C(0-4)). The Cs represent consonants while the V represent a vowel. The consonants are optional elements and that is why they are in bracket while the V is the compulsory part of this structure. The initial C can take a maximum of three consonants while the last C can take a maximum of four consonants. • Some syllable structure include the following: • V= eye /ai/, ear /iə/ • CV= we /wi/, pay /pei/ • CCV= tray /trei/, prey /prei/, dry /drai/ • CCCV= stroll /strəu/, spray /sprei/ • VC= up /ᴧp/, am /æm/ • VCC= act /ækt/, its /its/ • CVCCC= thanks /Ɵæŋks/ • CVCCCC= texts /teksts/ • CCVCCCC= prompts /prɔmpts/

  15. Lesson 2 cont’d: Syllabic Consonant/Elision • When a vowel does not function as the peak of a syllable and a consonant assumes that role, such a consonant is called a syllabic consonant. There are just two syllabic consonants in English and they are /l/ and /n/. Examples of words where they are found are bitten /bitn/, garden /ga:dn/, bottle /bɔtl/ and so on. • Elision occurs when a particular letter of a word is omitted when pronounced. The orthography of a word is quite different from its pronunciation. Examples are listen where ‘t’ is silent and pronounced /lisn/, the ‘b’ is silent in comb /kəum/, the ‘w’ is silent in sword /sɔ:d/.

  16. Lesson 2 cont’d: Stress and Intonation • Stress is described as the breath force with which a syllable is pronounced. A word in which the breath force is heaped on the first syllable has the primary stress placed on it while the syllable that has lower degree of stress is the unstressed syllable. E.g. the word ‘master’ has the primary stress on the first syllable and the last syllable is unstressed. • Intonation is the rise and fall of voice. the rise and fall of the voice is called either rising intonation or the falling intonation. Stress and intonation work hand-in-hand to convey meaning. • Rising intonation is used amongst other function for Yes/No questions e.g ‘Do you like tea? • Falling intonation is used amongst other function for declarative statements e.g. ‘ James and John bought a house’.

  17. Lesson 3: An Introduction to English Lexis and Structure • Homophones: These are words that tare pronounced the same way but have different spelling and meaning. Examples are you/ewe, suite/sweet and thyme/time. • Homographs are words pronounced differently and with different meaning but with the same spelling. An example is ‘refuse’ which means the act of declining /rifju:z/ and a waste/rubbish /refjus/. • Homonyms are words which have same spelling and pronunciation but with different meaning. An example is the word ‘bank’. Bank means an institution where money and other valuables are kept and it also means the side of a river. • Words forms and Lexeme: The dictionary entry of a word is its lexeme while the variant forms of a word is its word form. The word ‘fat’ is a lexeme while ‘fatter’, ‘fattest’ are word forms. • Lexical and Grammatical word: The former are open class items while the latter are closed class items. Lexical words have lexical/dictionary meaning and their meanings are not restricted unlike the grammatical/function words whose meaning are restricted because of the grammatical function they perform in sentences. Open class items include nouns, lexical verbs, some adverbs and adjectives while functional words include pronouns, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs and prepositions.

  18. Lesson 3 cont’d: Word Formation • The process of creating new words in a language is called word formation. These new words increase the vocabulary of the language. • There are different processes of word formation. They include affixation, clipping, blending, compounding, acronyms, reduplication and so on. • Affixation as a word formation process involves the creating of new words by the addition of affixes. Affixes are divided into two- suffixes and prefixes. While prefixes are added before the root/base word, suffixes are added after the root word. It is to be noted that suffixes change the word class of the word in which they are added. Examples of prefixes include: unhappy, inequality, deactivate, etc. Suffixes include: loyal (adj)+-ty= loyalty (noun), critic (noun)+ -ize= criticize (verb) establish (verb) + -ment= establishment (noun) nation (noun) + -al = national (adj) • Connotation and Denotation: The precise dictionary/explicit meaning of a word is its denotation while the implied/implicit meaning is its connotation. An example are the words house and home. Their explicit meaning refers to a structure or a building but the implicit meaning of home is more positive as it refers to an atmosphere of warmth, a place where one belongs and is welcomed. The cultural context and our emotions are sometimes put into consideration when arriving at the connotation of every word.

  19. Lesson 4: Figures of Speech • Figures of speech are techniques which are used mostly in poetry. They add beauty to poems as mental pictures are created in the mind of the reader. The ability for a poet to bend the rules of a language and create new words in it is guaranteed by poetic license. Examples of some figures of speech include: • Simile:It is an indirect comparison of the characteristics of two dissimilar things using ‘as’ or ‘like’. Examples are: ‘Mary is as tall as a palm tree’, ‘the compound is as quiet as a grave-yard’, ‘Femi wrestled like a lion’. • Metaphor: It is a direct comparison of two things. Examples are: ‘Mary is a palm tree’, ‘Tayo is a lion’. • Personification: When an inanimate object is given the attributes of a living being, personification comes into play. Examples are: ‘the trees danced’, ‘the chair is laughing’. • Apostrophe: When something is addressed as if it was physically present, the figure of speech is personification. Examples are: ‘O death! Where is thy sting?’, ‘O Lord! Save us. • Euphemism: It involves saying an unpleasant thing in a pleasant manner. An example is ‘His sons are gentlemen of the highway’. • Metonym: It involves the representation of one thing with something that is closely associated with it. An example is ‘can the gun survive without the hoe?’. • Irony: This is a statement that means the opposite of what it says. An example is: “ What a lucky student! He failed the test’.

  20. Lesson 5: Report Writing • A report is an account given of a particular matter especially in the form of an official document. Reports are gotten after an investigation by an appointed person. There are different types of report. They include periodic report which are written either weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly about the state of an organization, progress report which are written at regular intervals on the progress of a particular project. • Structure of a report: Every report has a format in which it is structured. The format include the following but is not restricted to it: • The title page: The title of the report is written here alongside the writer (s) names, the name of the organization to which the report is being submitted and the date of submission. • Foreword: This is a short introduction by someone who knows the genesis of the report. • Table of Contents: This is a list of all the major headings in the report. • Abstract: A brief summary of the report is captured here. • Introduction: This heading gives a background information of the report. • Procedure: This sections handles the method in which data/facts were collected during the course of the investigation. • Findings: This section captures the findings of the investigation. • Recommendations: This sections captures some lines of actions to be taken after the investigation has been concluded. The necessary steps to take. • Conclusion: the conclusion of the report should be presented here which are gotten from the findings. • Appendix: This section is optional as it captures all other information that helped in the course of the investigation. • Bibliography: This section captures the list of books cited.

  21. Lesson 6: Summary Writing and Public Speaking • Summary is reconstruction of a piece of writing in as few words as possible which would carry the main points of the passage. It is a short account of what someone has said without repeating the entire phrase (verbatim) but a paraphrasing of an earlier speech/sentence. • Summary Tips: Read the questions first, write down the points to look for in the passage, read the passage, making brief notes of the points, read the questions again to make sure you are doing the right thing and finally write your answer. • Oral Communication/Public Speaking: Oral communication is interpersonal communication which uses speech as the channel of conveying the message. The speaker becomes the sender of the message while the listener becomes the receiver of the message. Public speaking is a form of oral communication in which a speaker talks to a group of people who may not be familiar with him. In the communication process, the speaker should not focus on a particular person rather he should move his eyes through the crowd in other to ease himself. The use of gestures should be encouraged also as it helps the speaker to drive home his point. A proper rehearsal is important and should not be done alone. Rehearse with a group of friends and even in front of a mirror. Avoid errors in the use of language.

  22. References Aremo B. (ed) Advanced English Composition. Lagos: Scribo Educational Books, 2003. Print. Ikupa, J.O Intermediate Use of English. Warri: Kuba Publishers, 2006.Print. Jones, D. (ed.) Cambridge Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge: C.U.P, 2006. Print. Mowarin, M and Uwaifo S. Readings in General Studies.Abraka: University PrinitingPress, 2013. Print. Ogude, B.A. English Composition for Higher Education. Warri: Natasha Publishers, 2010. Print. Okorodudu, C.I Aspects of English Grammar and Communication. Warri: Eregha Publishers, 2010. Print. Onuigbo S. Oral English for Schools and Colleges. Onitsha: Africana-Fep Publishers, 1990. Print.