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Microbiology. Institite of microciology ， college of life science, Najing Normal University . Chapter 1 Introduction. A. What is microbe? The word microbe (microorganism) is used to describe an organism that is so small that, normally, it cannot be seen without the use of a
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Institite of microciology，college of life science, Najing Normal University
A. What is microbe?
The word microbe (microorganism) is used to
describe an organism that is so small that,
normally, it cannot be seen without the use of a
“microorganism” micro + organism
Microorganism is not a term on taxology
Eukaryote－fungoid、microscopic algae、protozoa and some intestinal parasitic worms
Noncellular orgnism －virus, viroid and
2． independent units
3． less complex
4． rapid growth rates
The categorizing system of biological
The categorizing system of three domains
The systemic taxa of mocroorganisms follow the systemic taxa built by Linnaeus，including seven grades from top to bottom:
There are more than ten grades in the systemic taxa altogether, because each grade, if needed, could sub-divide some auxiliary units
All species names of cellular microorganisms obey the Latin binominal nomenclature built by Linnaeus without exception，i.e. , a formal species name is built up by Latin words，and it should be italic. According to binomial nomenclature, a formal species name is consist of a genus name and a adding word of a species. A formal species name present in taxology literature, namers often be added after them, but namers could be omitted generally.
Escherichia coli（Migula）Castellani et Chalmers
A formal species name should obey trinomial nomenclature, when the name of microorganism is a subspecies( sub-sp．,Roman type) or a variety( var.,Roman type).
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp．galleria
Saccharomyces cerevisiae var．ellipsoideus
A formal name could be omitted often, when a species name is present repeatedly in a paper or works.
e.g. Escherichia coli， E. coli
Microbiology is a science of studying microorganisms, including diversity, activities rules of microorganisms and microbial contributions to the economic activities of human being.
Close correlation to the health of human beings and
Wide applications in industrial productions
Great effect of microbe on agricultural productions
Acceleration development on biology
As mode organisms, microorganisms have advantages as follows,
Low cultivate cost and large stock number;
Credible results on statistics；
Rapid growth rates and short doubling time
1867 — 1869 Lister built disinfection surgery and carried on the carbolic acid disinfection experiment successfully for the first time.
Miescher found nucleic acid.
Louis Pasteur prepared anthrax vaccine.
1884 Pasteur investigated hydrophobia vaccine successfully，and invent immunology.
Chain and Flory designed the industrial producing process of penicillin.
Lederberg invented replica plating；
Zinder and Lederberg discovered generalized transduction;
Watson and Crick put forward DNA duplex structure.
1973Ames built mensuration of bacteria to detect carcinogen；
Cohen covered recombinant plasmids to Escherichia coli. successfully for the first time.
1983—1984 Gallo and Montagnier separated and inspected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)；
Mullis built PCR technology.
Robert Koch， 1843-1910
Acquiring single colony
by scoring method
Koch Law graphics
5.molecular biology research stage, maturation phase（1953-）
J.D.Waston, H.F.C.Crickdiscovered DNA duplex model（1953）
Having characteristics and commonness of vital phenomenon, microbe will be optimal material to solve significant theory problems and practical applications，such as origin and evolution of life, basic law of matter motion, exploitation of new microbial resources, energy resource and foodstuff etc.
Prescott LM, Harley JP, and Klein DA., Microbiology (5th ed.), Higher education press and McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.2002
Michael TM, John MM, Jack P. Brock., Biology of Micoorganisms，International edition, Pearson Education, Inc.2003
Talaro K. P. Foundations in Microbiology (Fifth Edition), Higher education press and McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.2005
Zhou De-qing，Microbiology textbook，second edition，high education publishing