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Individual & Group Process Theory & Practice Applications for Understanding And Progressing Through The Doctoral Program Or Work Groups Perspectives on Group Learning & Group Work Activity - process orientation paradigm categories of learning dimensional attributes of learning

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individual group process theory practice

Individual & Group ProcessTheory & Practice

Applications for Understanding

And Progressing Through

The Doctoral Program

Or

Work Groups

perspectives on group learning group work
Perspectives on Group Learning & Group Work
  • Activity - process orientation paradigm
    • categories of learning
    • dimensional attributes of learning
  • Group processing: concepts & strategies
  • Gender issues
  • Functional & dysfunctional group member roles
  • Data gathering methods
  • Schema for self-evaluation for work groups
activity process orientation paradigm

Activity-ProcessOrientation Paradigm

How Activities Intersect With

Processes for Learning and Task

Accomplishment

slide4

Activity - Process Paradigm

Group as Focus

Dimensional attributes of learning-

Collaborative

Learning

Lecture

Interpersonal

Environmental

D A

C B

With Peers

By Oneself

Knowledge content

Technology support

Sociological

Concurrent

Learning

Self-study

Person-as-Focus

slide5

Mentally underscore a key distinction:

Activity - Process Paradigm

Group as Focus

Traditional Class

Session

Collaborative

Learning

Business Meetings

Integrative Seminars

Lecture

  • Cooperative learning activity is concurrent
  • leaning in this model because the focus is on
  • individual gains and products, even though
  • members work cooperatively in a group
  • setting

Cooperative Learning

Groups

D A

C B

Informal Discussion

Groups

With Peers

By Oneself

  • Functional teams & work groups focus on
  • group gains and products through joint effort
  • and mutual facilitation. Personal achievement
  • and responsibility are essential to positive
  • group accomplishment and individual gains
  • are a natural byproduct of collaboration

Concurrent

Learning

Self-study

Person-as-Focus

slide6

Activity - Process Paradigm

Group as Focus

Traditional Class

Session

Collaborative

Learning

Business Meetings

Work teams

Lecture

Dissertation

Logs

Reflections

Reflective Journals

D A

C B

Informal Discussion

Groups

Cooperative Learning

Groups

With Peers

By Oneself

Concurrent

Learning

Self-study

Person-as-Focus

slide7

Group as Focus

Activity - Process Paradigm

Shared values

community

cooperative

consensus seeking

common goals

Authority

autocracy

listening

constrained tempo

Collaborative

Learning

Lecture

With Peers

By Oneself

Mutual respect

democracy

participatory

open forum

competing priorities & multiple values

Self-respect, autonomy

focus on own thoughts

self-directed, internal

Concurrent

Learning

Self-study

Person-as-Focus

the johari window

The Johari Window

Feedback Framework for Self

And Group Development

slide9

Solicits Feedback

Self Disclosure

Or

Gives Feedback

Insight

Unconscious

Self

Johari

Window

On The

Self

Things I Know.

Things I Don’t Know

Things They Know

Arena

Blind Spot

Group

Things They Don’t Know

Facade

Unknown

slide10

A

BS

F

U

Solicit Feedback

Goals of Feedback

A

BS

F

U

Give Feedback

slide11

A

A

A

A

BS

BS

BS

BS

F

F

F

F

U

U

U

U

Feedback Ratio Profiles

Turtle

Bull-in-China-Shop

Interviewer

Ideal Window

some guidelines
Some guidelines….
  • In gaining & giving feedback, the self-efficacy of the group is as important as that of the individual.
  • In functional groups, the individual seeks insight to enhance his ability to contribute, and group members offer feedback in the spirit of group development.
  • Conflict is inevitable and not to be avoided for its own sake. Mature groups appreciate it value and use it constructively.
  • A heightened state of sensitivity for individual feelings and respect for the worth of member contributions is essential.
  • Responsible group membership means doing your share, facilitating the work of others and accepting the collective judgment of the group.
  • After all is said and done regarding empowerment, long-term & and optimal group performance cannot be accomplished without a leader.
  • Groups should be self-organizing and self-governing: therefore, leadership means facilitation and the leader role may be temporary, task specific and/or rotated among members as the group sees appropriate.
  • Debrief, leave off positive
feedback
Feedback...
  • Feedback is interactive and public, except in unusual circumstances.
  • It is a multi-way disclosure process directed at broadening the arena to enhance a member’s ability to contribute.
  • Feedback should be direct and generally expressed in terms of your own perceptions or feelings. Some examples:
    • “I hear you saying that….”
    • “Are you telling us that….?”
    • “What you just said makes me feel like…”
    • “I’m wondering if you could also say it another way…”
    • “Other members seem to think X; is that accurate?”
    • “It’s not you I don’t like, it’s your behavior…”
    • “Could you restate so I can get a better understanding…?”
    • “I wonder if I have misinterpreted your statement…”?
gender traps
Gender Traps

&

Sources of Conflict

childhood socio linguistic subcultures
Men

Boys learn linguistic tools of domination and control in large groups:

storytelling

argumentation

verbal posturing

Women

Girls play in small groups with a focus on close friendships:

cooperation

reading clues

Childhood Socio-linguistic Subcultures

Therefore, the Rules of Engagement

and interpretation are different

slide17
Men

sense of self is defined through their ability to get results

listen for action and decisions

make categorical statements about right and wrong

ask fewer questions

send fewer listening signals

Women

focus on feelings and quality of present relationships

listen for details and the full story

use personal experiences and examples

ask more questions

send more listening signals

Gender Behavior & Consequences

She nods, says “yes”, meaning “I follow you”

“I take it that she’s in agreement with me”

She asks questions to get details on his view

She’s not knowledgeable, supplies answers

“I already know all that, he thinks I’m stupid”

AND

SO...

He’s uncaring & cold She’s not logical

He’s not listening She is insincere

group member roles

Group Member Roles

Task-Related

Group Oriented

Individual, Trait-Specific

task roles
Initiator-contributor

Information seeker

Opinion seeker

Information giver

Opinion giver

Elaborator

Coordinator

Orienter

evaluator-critic

engineer

Procedural technician

Recorder

Task Roles
building and maintenance roles
Building and Maintenance Roles
  • Encourager
  • Harmonizer
  • Compromiser
  • Gatekeeper and expediter
  • Standard setter or ego ideal
  • Group observer and commentator
  • Follower
individual roles
Individual Roles
  • Aggressor
  • Blocker
  • Recognition seeker
  • Self-confessor
  • Playboy
  • Dominator
  • Help seeker
  • Special-interest pleader

All roles can contribute and all can hinder

dysfunctional patterns in group meetings
Dysfunctional Patterns in Group meetings
  • Vying for power
  • Joking & clowning excessively
  • Failing to agree on problems
  • Arguing about opinions & suggestions
  • Wandering off the topic, introducing irrelevancies
  • Forced dominance
  • Failure to commit
slide25
Sensing Interviews
  • Focus Groups
  • Delphi & Modified Delphi
  • Nominal Groups
  • Brainstorming
  • Observation
  • Systematic Observation
  • Complete Observation
  • Participant Observation
  • Existing Data
references consulted
References Consulted

Bennie, K.D. & Sheets, P. (1948). Functional roles of group members. Journal of Social Issues. 4(2), 41-49.

Bennie, K.D. & Sheets, P. (1951). Functional roles of group members. Human Relations and Curriculum Change. pp 98-104.

Chang, & Simpson, D. (1997). The circle of learning: Individual and group processes. Education Policy Analysis Archives. V5, No. 7. http://olam.ed.asu.edu/epaa/v5n7/

Theories and Models in Applied Behavioral Science: Group, V. 2. (1991). J. William Pfeiffer, Editor. San Diego, CA: Pfeiffer & Co.

Shamir, Boas (1990). Calculations, values, and identities:The sources of collectivistic work motivation. Human Relations. V 43, No. 4, pp 313-332.

Snider, Sherie (1997). Gender and the communication process. Course paper prepared for Organizational Theory & Inquiry. Jonesboro, AR: Arkansas State University, Center for Excellence in Education.