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Individual & Group Process Theory & Practice

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  1. Individual & Group ProcessTheory & Practice Applications for Understanding And Progressing Through The Doctoral Program Or Work Groups

  2. Perspectives on Group Learning & Group Work • Activity - process orientation paradigm • categories of learning • dimensional attributes of learning • Group processing: concepts & strategies • Gender issues • Functional & dysfunctional group member roles • Data gathering methods • Schema for self-evaluation for work groups

  3. Activity-ProcessOrientation Paradigm How Activities Intersect With Processes for Learning and Task Accomplishment

  4. Activity - Process Paradigm Group as Focus Dimensional attributes of learning- Collaborative Learning Lecture Interpersonal Environmental D A C B With Peers By Oneself Knowledge content Technology support Sociological Concurrent Learning Self-study Person-as-Focus

  5. Mentally underscore a key distinction: Activity - Process Paradigm Group as Focus Traditional Class Session Collaborative Learning Business Meetings Integrative Seminars Lecture • Cooperative learning activity is concurrent • leaning in this model because the focus is on • individual gains and products, even though • members work cooperatively in a group • setting Cooperative Learning Groups D A C B Informal Discussion Groups With Peers By Oneself • Functional teams & work groups focus on • group gains and products through joint effort • and mutual facilitation. Personal achievement • and responsibility are essential to positive • group accomplishment and individual gains • are a natural byproduct of collaboration Concurrent Learning Self-study Person-as-Focus

  6. Activity - Process Paradigm Group as Focus Traditional Class Session Collaborative Learning Business Meetings Work teams Lecture Dissertation Logs Reflections Reflective Journals D A C B Informal Discussion Groups Cooperative Learning Groups With Peers By Oneself Concurrent Learning Self-study Person-as-Focus

  7. Group as Focus Activity - Process Paradigm Shared values community cooperative consensus seeking common goals Authority autocracy listening constrained tempo Collaborative Learning Lecture With Peers By Oneself Mutual respect democracy participatory open forum competing priorities & multiple values Self-respect, autonomy focus on own thoughts self-directed, internal Concurrent Learning Self-study Person-as-Focus

  8. The Johari Window Feedback Framework for Self And Group Development

  9. Solicits Feedback Self Disclosure Or Gives Feedback Insight Unconscious Self Johari Window On The Self Things I Know. Things I Don’t Know Things They Know Arena Blind Spot Group Things They Don’t Know Facade Unknown

  10. A BS F U Solicit Feedback Goals of Feedback A BS F U Give Feedback

  11. A A A A BS BS BS BS F F F F U U U U Feedback Ratio Profiles Turtle Bull-in-China-Shop Interviewer Ideal Window

  12. General Group Guidelines&Feedback Skills

  13. Some guidelines…. • In gaining & giving feedback, the self-efficacy of the group is as important as that of the individual. • In functional groups, the individual seeks insight to enhance his ability to contribute, and group members offer feedback in the spirit of group development. • Conflict is inevitable and not to be avoided for its own sake. Mature groups appreciate it value and use it constructively. • A heightened state of sensitivity for individual feelings and respect for the worth of member contributions is essential. • Responsible group membership means doing your share, facilitating the work of others and accepting the collective judgment of the group. • After all is said and done regarding empowerment, long-term & and optimal group performance cannot be accomplished without a leader. • Groups should be self-organizing and self-governing: therefore, leadership means facilitation and the leader role may be temporary, task specific and/or rotated among members as the group sees appropriate. • Debrief, leave off positive

  14. Feedback... • Feedback is interactive and public, except in unusual circumstances. • It is a multi-way disclosure process directed at broadening the arena to enhance a member’s ability to contribute. • Feedback should be direct and generally expressed in terms of your own perceptions or feelings. Some examples: • “I hear you saying that….” • “Are you telling us that….?” • “What you just said makes me feel like…” • “I’m wondering if you could also say it another way…” • “Other members seem to think X; is that accurate?” • “It’s not you I don’t like, it’s your behavior…” • “Could you restate so I can get a better understanding…?” • “I wonder if I have misinterpreted your statement…”?

  15. Gender Traps & Sources of Conflict

  16. Men Boys learn linguistic tools of domination and control in large groups: storytelling argumentation verbal posturing Women Girls play in small groups with a focus on close friendships: cooperation reading clues Childhood Socio-linguistic Subcultures Therefore, the Rules of Engagement and interpretation are different

  17. Men sense of self is defined through their ability to get results listen for action and decisions make categorical statements about right and wrong ask fewer questions send fewer listening signals Women focus on feelings and quality of present relationships listen for details and the full story use personal experiences and examples ask more questions send more listening signals Gender Behavior & Consequences She nods, says “yes”, meaning “I follow you” “I take it that she’s in agreement with me” She asks questions to get details on his view She’s not knowledgeable, supplies answers “I already know all that, he thinks I’m stupid” AND SO... He’s uncaring & cold She’s not logical He’s not listening She is insincere

  18. Group Member Roles Task-Related Group Oriented Individual, Trait-Specific

  19. Initiator-contributor Information seeker Opinion seeker Information giver Opinion giver Elaborator Coordinator Orienter evaluator-critic engineer Procedural technician Recorder Task Roles

  20. Building and Maintenance Roles • Encourager • Harmonizer • Compromiser • Gatekeeper and expediter • Standard setter or ego ideal • Group observer and commentator • Follower

  21. Individual Roles • Aggressor • Blocker • Recognition seeker • Self-confessor • Playboy • Dominator • Help seeker • Special-interest pleader All roles can contribute and all can hinder

  22. Dysfunctional Patterns

  23. Dysfunctional Patterns in Group meetings • Vying for power • Joking & clowning excessively • Failing to agree on problems • Arguing about opinions & suggestions • Wandering off the topic, introducing irrelevancies • Forced dominance • Failure to commit

  24. Group Data Collection

  25. Sensing Interviews • Focus Groups • Delphi & Modified Delphi • Nominal Groups • Brainstorming • Observation • Systematic Observation • Complete Observation • Participant Observation • Existing Data

  26. References Consulted Bennie, K.D. & Sheets, P. (1948). Functional roles of group members. Journal of Social Issues. 4(2), 41-49. Bennie, K.D. & Sheets, P. (1951). Functional roles of group members. Human Relations and Curriculum Change. pp 98-104. Chang, & Simpson, D. (1997). The circle of learning: Individual and group processes. Education Policy Analysis Archives. V5, No. 7. http://olam.ed.asu.edu/epaa/v5n7/ Theories and Models in Applied Behavioral Science: Group, V. 2. (1991). J. William Pfeiffer, Editor. San Diego, CA: Pfeiffer & Co. Shamir, Boas (1990). Calculations, values, and identities:The sources of collectivistic work motivation. Human Relations. V 43, No. 4, pp 313-332. Snider, Sherie (1997). Gender and the communication process. Course paper prepared for Organizational Theory & Inquiry. Jonesboro, AR: Arkansas State University, Center for Excellence in Education.