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The Power of Purchasing: Greening the University Supply Chain Duke University; Freeman Center for Jewish Life (March 22, 2004). K. Lyons (1980 – Today): Ph.D. Supply Chain Environmental Management (EPP/SCM Economic Impact Assessments); LCA/C, Waste Management, EIS Real Work!:

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The Power of Purchasing: Greening the University Supply Chain Duke University; Freeman Center for Jewish Life (March 22,

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The Power of Purchasing:

Greening the University Supply Chain

Duke University; Freeman Center for Jewish Life (March 22, 2004)


K. Lyons (1980 – Today):

  • Ph.D. Supply Chain Environmental Management (EPP/SCM Economic Impact Assessments); LCA/C, Waste Management, EIS

Real Work!:

  • 1980 – 1986; USAF – Purchasing Division
  • 1986 – 1988; St. Peter’s Med Ctr – Purchasing/Patient!
  • 1988 – Present; Rutgers – Procurement/Research/As Assigned!
    • RU/Oracle eProcurement Implementation Team (1999-2002)
    • EcoComplex (EPP Research)
    • NYCT/MTA (EPP Research, EIS Peer Review Facilitator-On Call!)
    • EPP Government/Community/School Developmental Projects
      • HE/Community Shared Services Initiative
      • EPP Local Economic Development Initiative
    • Global EPP/Supply Chain Project Work
      • UK (Wales, England, N. Ireland, Scotland); EU/Local Authority Projects
      • S. America (Colombia, Peru, Brazil – Supply Tracking, Waste Mgt)
green purchasing overview theme
Green Purchasing Overview/Theme
  • ·A strong, high-level Organizational commitment to environmental stewardship and top-level management support for supply chain initiatives;
  • ·Cross-functional integration involving all the different areas within a organization that can gain value from interacting with suppliers (such as procurement, environment, manufacturing, marketing, research & development, and distribution);
  • ·Incorporation of environmental issues into existing supply chain management activities and design, procurement, and distribution processes;
  • ·Effective processes for targeting which suppliers to involve in environmental initiatives;
  • Clear, consistent, frequent, and two-way communication with suppliers about environmental issues and performance expectations.
he federal government spend
HE/Federal Government Spend!

The United States Federal Government and Higher Education sectors are two of the largest purchasers and consumers of goods and services in the U. S. On average, both spend approximately $400–$500 billion dollars a year on goods and services, which is 15 % of all goods and services purchased in the U.S. economy (27.5% of the U.S. Gross National Product), with state and local governments accounting for an additional 12%–13%.


Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

"...products or services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose..."

U.S. Federal Executive Order 13101

High Quality Purchasing/Supply Chain Management


Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

  • Also called "Affirmative Procurement,"“Sustainable Procurement/ Purchasing” and "Green Purchasing," this approach means integrating environmental factors into procurement policies, usually using the following tools and/or methods:
  • Pollution Prevention: From the start of a process or procedure, reducing or eliminating toxicity, air and water emissions.
  • Life-Cycle Perspective: Looking beyond purchase price. Consider costs and environmental impacts over the lifetime of a product or service (manufacturing, packaging, transport, energy consumption, maintenance, disposal).
  • Natural Resource Protection: Giving preference to sustainable, reusable content, and recycled materials over virgin materials, as well as to conserving water and energy.

Bio-based Material – Material, other than food or feed, that is composed, in whole or in significant part, of biological products or renewable, domestic, agricultural (plant, animal and marine), or forestry materials.

Certification– Procedure by which an independent third party gives written assurance that a product, process system or service conforms to specified requirements, either mandatory or voluntary, regulated or non-regulated.

Certified – A product, process, system or service that has undergone certification.

life cycle assessment un
Life Cycle Assessment (UN)

A product's life cycle starts when raw materials are extracted from the earth, followed by manufacturing, transport and use, and ends with waste management including recycling and final disposal. At every stage of the life cycle there are emissions and consumption of resources. The environmental impacts from the entire life cycle of products and services need to be addressed. To do this, life cycle thinking is required.

Costing Assessments should be applied as well (LCC)!

life cycle assessment un10
Life Cycle Assessment (UN)

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for the systematic evaluation of the environmental aspects of a product or service system through all stages of its life cycle. LCA provides an adequate instrument for environmental decision support. Life cycle assessment has proven to be a valuable tool to document the environmental considerations that need to be part of decision-making towards sustainability.


A reliable LCA performance is crucial to achieve a life-cycle economy. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), a world-wide federation of national standards bodies, has standardized this framework within the ISO 14040 series on LCA.


Environmental impacts along the lifecycle (example)

Environmental Impacts of Mineral Extraction

  • Extraction of minerals such as limestone, sandstone, gravel, sand, coal or china clay can be extremely damaging to the environment and can impact on local communities in a variety of ways. These impacts include:
    • • Noise and vibration (during extraction, processing and construction phases)
    • • Dust (from quarrying, traffic, etc)
    • • Pollution of surface and groundwater
    • • Visual impacts and loss of land
    • • Increased traffic and associated energy use, dust, noise, nuisance, etc
    • • Health and safety impacts associated with extractive industries
    • • Use of energy for extraction and processing
    • • Loss of cultural heritage
    • • Reduced local and global air quality with subsequent effects on health
    • • Production and disposal of waste materials and associated landfill impacts
    • • Exhaustion of non-renewable resources
    • • Reduction of biodiversity (directly through the use and loss of habitats, and
    • indirectly through dust, noise, etc.)

Waste Management/Recycling; My Research at the EcoComplex

In order to support the economic soundness of solid waste and recycling policy implementation, research into the economic impacts associated with this program are being investigated. This research could provide a broad overview of recent trends in solid waste and recycling, related public policy issues, and will utilize various national and international sources of economics literature and research devoted to this topic. Special attention is given to critical decision-making further up the waste stream ladder which will include raw material extraction, product design, manufacture, packaging, use and options disposal (which may provide insights to broadening our downstream technology options and opportunities).

ru eprocurement initiatives
RU eProcurement Initiatives
  • Rutgers - Camden LCC Project 1999-2000
    • Life Cycle Costing - Purchase Profiles
    • Waste/financial impact profiles attached to each purchase (Resource Track)
    • Reporting ‘real-time’ purchase>waste stats
  • Environmentally Preferable Purchasing and e-Commerce Research (Electronic Supplier Data Transfer/Interface)
  • EPP GPS Resource Tracking ‘Buyer’ Footprint
  • Commodity/Resource LCA Tracking and Mapping Project
  • Web Database; Procurement LCC Decision Matrix
  • EcoComplex; R&D Government/Industry Participation
why buy green
  • Conserve resources, including energy
  • Improve our environmental footprint
  • Market development
  • Economic benefits
  • Health and safety
  • Reduced liabilities
positive environmental attributes
Positive Environmental Attributes
  • Recycled content
  • Recyclability
  • Product disassembly potential
  • Durability
  • Reusability
  • Take-back
  • Biobased
  • Energy efficiency
  • Water efficiency
  • Reconditioned or remanufactured
  • Other attributes with positive environmental effects (expansion of the ‘Lease/return’ concept)
why buy recycled
  • Develop markets and technologies (RU/Polywood, Highland Park ‘Green Tax Zone, MBE/WBE opportunities)
  • Conserve resources and energy
  • Improve our environmental footprint
  • Economic benefits
why buy green20

It’s the law!

myths about buying green
  • President Bush revoked the greening the government Executive Orders
  • Inconsistent with efforts to be more like corporate America
  • Inconsistent with buying from mandatory sources
green purchasing encompasses



  • Recycled content products
  • Environmentally preferable products including biobased products
  • Energy efficient products
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Section 6002
  • 2002 Farm Bill, Section 9002
  • EO 13101, Greening the Government through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition
  • Federal Acquisition Regulations

Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

Rutgers EPP Program Highlights!


Greening the Supply Chain Infrastructure

Climbing Outside the Procurement Box!

Global Product/Supplier Investigations/Liaisons (US, SA, Europe, Far East), RU Research, Supply Chain research (FAR, State, HE, Corp)


Talloires Signatories

WWF-UK, RU Contracts

global epp projects
Europe/UK (IDeA, WWF-UK, etc.)

European Union EPP Policy Development/Performance Project

Local Authority EPP Training/Implementation Project

Corporate Environmental Reporting (Sunderland-Alabaster)

Colombia/Peru (Supply Chain Tracking)

EPP Training and Corporate Policy Development

Waste Management/Recycling Training

Collaborative Environmental Research

Trade Issues

International Corporate Responsibility (International Environmental Liaison Program)

Global EPP Projects

Rutgers EPP Community

Partnerships & Opportunities

Local Community, National/International, Government, NGO, Higher Education, Private Sector, On-Campus Research, K-12, Purchasing Associations (NIGP, NAEB, ISM, COUP)

MTA/NYCT EPP Training/EPP Policy Development-Implementation Project

NYCT/MTA Specific (Procurement, Safety, Field)

Environmental Impacts; Performance (on-site/construction, etc)

State of New York DEC Grant MTA Capital EPP Project

K. Lyons EPP Embedment (MTA/NYCT, LIRR, NJ DOT/NJ Transit)

Specification/Contract Development EPP Inclusion Public Law/EO 111 Support

Lower Manhattan Redevelopment Classroom/Laboratory: Rutgers University/NYCT-MTA Center for Applied EPP Research

mta fulton street transit center
Federal Environmental Impact Statement; Peer Review Facilitator, NYCT Fulton Street Transit Center Project

($750 Million)

Overall Compliance with NEPA

Technical Analysis – Project Environmental Impacts and Performance (e.g. Construction, Spoils)

Coordination w/Other Agencies/Stakeholders

MTA (Fulton Street Transit Center)
selected k lyons epp projects
New York Stock Exchange (Greening the NYSE Supply Chain); New Project

Green Business Ticker/Report

NYSE Green Purchasing/NYSE Operations and Technology

Technology and Workplace Environment

Lawrenceville Prep School Project

Waste Audit Project

Campus Audit

Waste Management/Landfill Research

Community/Economic Impact Assessments

Selected K. Lyons EPP Projects

Greening With Our Neighbors in Highland Park, NJ

Highland Park 2020 Initiative

(Mayor M. Frank); BPU

Rutgers EPP Community Partnerships

EPP Local Economic Development

Cooperative Purchasing/Maximized

Sustaining Green Government/

Higher Education Partnerships

Green Business/Residential Zone

Greening the Municipal Buildings

City-wide Audit/Assessment