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Freshwater and Saltwater Aquariums

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  1. Freshwater and Saltwater Aquariums By Jenessa Gjeltema

  2. Choose Your Aquarium Type The specific aquarium setup will depend upon the requirements of the species you choose.

  3. Choose Your Aquarium Type

  4. Choose Your Aquarium Type

  5. Choose Your Aquarium Type

  6. Basic Needs • Appropriate enclosure/housing • Nutrition • Hygiene • Enrichment

  7. Tank Stand/Canopy Lid/condenser Lights Temperature Control Environmental Enrichment Filtration Location Water Quality Enclosure Components

  8. Enclosure Components: Tank Consider: Size Shape Materials Convenience Aesthetics

  9. Enclosure Components: Tank

  10. Why? Keeps fish from jumping out Prevents evaporation Protects lights Enclosure Components: Lid/Condenser

  11. Why? Plant Growth Coral Growth Visualizing the Fish Fish health Enclosure Components: Lighting

  12. Enclosure Components: Lighting Considerations: Fixtures Ballast Wavelength Light Intensity Reflectors Photoperiod (12 hours)

  13. How? Heaters Chillers Fans Ventilation Enclosure Components: Temperature Regulation

  14. Why? Evasion Breeding Quality of life Express Personality Enclosure Components: Environmental Enrichment

  15. Enclosure Components: Environmental Enrichment • Types: • Wood • Rocks • Substrate • Plants

  16. Enclosure Components: Plants Why? • Oxygenation • Waste removal • Protection

  17. Filtration Systems

  18. Filtration Systems • Considerations • Tank size • Stocking capacity • Water flow • Breeding • Aeration

  19. Filtration Systems

  20. Filtration Systems

  21. Filtration Systems Protein Skimmer: Removes organic material from marine systems

  22. Filtration Systems Underground filter: biological and mechanical

  23. Avoid: windows/direct sunlight drafty doors or fireplaces vibrations/sharp noises Enclosure Components: Location

  24. Water Composition: Water Testing

  25. Water Composition: Stock Water • Know what is in your stock water • Test periodically • Alternatives available Test for: • Chlorines • Copper • pH • Hardness

  26. Fresh Water: pH Ammonia Nitrite Nitrate Water Composition: Testing • Salt Water: • Salinity • Other: • Phosphate • Calcium • Strontium

  27. Water Quality: Nitrogen Cycle badmanstropicalfish.com (originally from www.hagen.com)

  28. Water Quality: Nitrogen Cycle www.cichlid-forum.com

  29. Water Quality: Cycling A New Tank Purpose: grow bacteria for nitrogen cycle • Takes 4-6 weeks Tips: • “Seed” the tank • Monitor values closely • Avoid water changes • Can achieve without fish

  30. Water Changes Why? • Dilutes waste products • Corrects pH imbalances • Can reduce algae growth

  31. Performing Water Changes • Regular water changes • 2% every 2 days • 4% every week • 20% a month

  32. Adding Fish: Acclimation • Temperature • Water composition • Environmental factors How: • 15-30 min. for temperature • 15 minutes for water composition

  33. Nutrition Dry: Flakes Pellets Sticks Floating Sinking Wafers Seaweed Live/Frozen: Blood Worms Daphnia Brine Shrimp Feeder fish Plants

  34. Nutrition • Know your fish • Observe mouth • Use dry food as staple • Supplement with fresh/frozen foods • Do not overfeed Picture from Jeremy Gay’s The Perfect Aquarium

  35. Maintenance Daily: Feed Monitor Lighting Weekly: Replace evaporation Water testing Clean algae Empty protein skimmer

  36. Maintenance Monthly: Charcoal replacement Plant maintenance Electrical Inspection 6 mos. To Yearly: Change light bulbs

  37. Additional Considerations Personal Safety Euthanasia Environmental Impact Veterinary Care

  38. References Axelrod, Herbert. Handbook of Tropical Aquarium Fishes. Neptune City: TFH Publications. 1983. Borneman, Eric. Aquarium Corals: Selection, Husbandry, and Natural History. Neptune City: T.H.F. Publications. 2001. Fenner, Robert M. The Conscientious Marine Aquarist. Neptune city: T.F.H Publications. 2001. Gay, Jeremy. The Perfect Aquarium: The Complete Guide to Setting Up and Maintaining an Aquarium. New York: Reader’s Digest. 2005. Hawkins, A.D. Aquarium Systems. London: Academic Press. 1981

  39. References Hemdal, Jay F. Aquarium Fish Breeding. New York: Barron’s. 2003. Hiscock, Peter. Encyclopedia of Aquarium Plants. New York: Barron’s. 2003 Sandford, Gina. The Tropical Aquarium. New York: Barron’s. 2004. Stoskopf, Michael. Fish Medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Sauders Co. 1993. Tullock, John. Water Chemistry for the Marine Aquarium. New York: Barron’s. 2002.

  40. Special Thank You to: Fish World and Aqua Pros

  41. Thank You! Questions? If you would like to learn more about fish (as well as coral and amphibian) husbandry, please contact me at jlgjelte@ncsu.edu. I can help you get some hands-on experience!