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Freehand Sketching Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Fall 2004 Created by: P.M. Larochelle & J.S. Ketchel Freehand Sketching Ideation – Integral to the design process Generation of design concepts to solve a design problem

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Freehand Sketching

Introduction to Mechanical Engineering

Fall 2004

Created by:

P.M. Larochelle & J.S. Ketchel


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Freehand Sketching

  • Ideation – Integral to the design process

    • Generation of design concepts to solve a design problem

  • Usually freehand sketching is used to explore, study and communicate these design concepts

  • Even today, and for the foreseeable future, many great design ideas are communicated via freehand sketching

  • The “BEST” design engineers can immediately communicate an idea via a freehand sketch


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Freehand Sketching

  • Required

    • Pencil, Paper and Eraser

  • Do not use

    • Straight edges, templates, compasses etc.

      They slow down the process and defeat the purpose of fast communication of ideas!


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Freehand Sketching

  • Sketches are planned

  • Visualize the sketch

    • Size of paper & scale

    • Orientation of the object

    • Minimum detail to communicate the idea

    • Type of sketch

      • Oblique

      • Isometric

      • Orthographic



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Types of Sketches

  • Oblique

    • Advantage: one true face

    • Disadvantage: not “photorealistic”

  • Isometric (a type of axonometric drawing) & Perspective

    • Advantage: easy to visualize the object

    • Disadvantage: no true face

  • Multi-View (orthographic)

    • Advantage: true faces

    • Disadvantage: hard to visualize

  • Isometric, oblique, and perspective

    sketches are methods of showing

    the object in a single view.


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Freehand Sketching

  • Freehand sketches are not sloppy!


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Freehand Sketching

  • When possible use the grid on your engineering paper!


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Freehand Sketching

  • Outline the sketch

    • Use light lines

    • Show major edges and boundaries and then add small details


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Freehand Sketching

  • Shape the sketches

    • Add appropriate details

    • Darken object lines


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Freehand Sketching

  • Fundamental Rule of Sketching

    • Maintain Proportion

  • Hints: use standard techniques to draw lines and arcs

  • Lines

    • Locate a start “dot”

    • Locate an end “dot”

    • Put pencil on start dot, look at the end dot and smoothly move pencil toward the end dot


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Freehand Sketching

  • Circles (arcs)

    • Draw light horizontal and vertical lines that intersect at the center

    • Lightly mark the radius on the lines

    • Connect the radius marks with arcs to complete the circle

    • See Step-by-Step 3.1& 3.3 on pages 60 & 62.


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Construction Lines

  • Light and thin lines

  • Serve as path for final straight lines

  • Intersection of construction lines specify the length of the final lines

  • Points marked by the intersection of construction lines serve as guides for sketching of arcs and circles

  • Guide the proportion of the sketch




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Oblique Sketching

  • Step 1 – Draw the horizontal and vertical construction lines which outline the basic shape of the main face - “Blocking in”

  • Step 2 – Sketch the face of the part

  • Step 3 – Sketch receding construction lines at 30 or 45 degrees

  • Step 4 – Sketch- in and darken the lines outlining the part – Done!


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Isometric Sketching

  • Step 1 – Construct a horizontal line, two lines at 30 degrees above the horizontal and a vertical line through their intersection

    • This defines the isometric axes used to draw the sketch


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Isometric Sketching

  • Step 2 – Sketch in a box to “block-in” the front face and the other faces follow

  • Step 3 – Sketch the outline of the front face in it’s “block” and the other faces follow

    • Work parallel to the isometric axes


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References

  • Chapter 3 of Modern Graphics Communication by Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill, Dygdon, Novak, and Lockhard, 3rd edition. Prentice-Hall, 2004.

  • Technical Drawing by Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill, Dygdon, and Novak, 9th edition. Macmillan, 1991.


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